Rules and methods of first aid
Rules of first aid are important skills that are necessary for every person. Not everyone can provide first aid to the victim at the scene, but it depends on the health, the lives of others. In some cases, able to provide first aid to the victim himself.
If care is provided incorrectly, it may worsen the condition of the victim, cause additional injuries.
According to statistics, 90% of deaths in case of accidents occurs in the absence of first aid in the first minutes of the tragedy. Action first aid – emergency calls, rescue workers, then we should start to provide first aid.
General guidelines when providing first aid
The main purpose of first aid is to alleviate the condition of the victim. Give her until the ambulance arrived. Assisting needs to know the exact sequence of actions, strictly abide by industry, input-output instructions. Interdisciplinary instruction is almost identical to the industry, it is issued by the employer in the production of subordinates under the signature. Knowledge of this document by the employees necessarily. Intersectoral manual – universal for first aid, which is needed in case of incidents.
To distinguish between 3 main types of aid:General rules for first aid
- first aid. Consists of a set of activities offered by the victim, the man is near, rescue corps member. It uses a service, the means at hand;
- aid. She is a paramedic;
- first medical aid. Consists of a complex of preventive measures that are carried out by a doctor to correct the consequences of trauma.
Algorithm of rendering first aid depends on the type of injury, performed according to instructions developed for each type of injury. The procedure for first aid is in the following form:
- To call an ambulance.
- To determine the need for first aid to the victim in case of accident.
- Deciding to provide first aid.
- To provide first aid until the arrival of teams of specialists.
First aid for bleeding
Bleeding occurs when injury to the blood vessels, the blood comes out. The rate of bleeding depends on the type of the injured vessel (vein, artery, capillary).
With a slight wound to the algorithm of first aid as follows:
- washing the wounds with antiseptic. Minor cuts, wounds may be washed with an alcoholic solution of iodine, solution of hydrogen peroxide;
- treatment of contaminated wounds with a sterile pad, clean cloth. The wound is cleaned, starting movement from the middle to the edge;
- the wound impose a small bandage;
- professional assistance needed in cases where there is a possibility of infection of the wound.
If the victim has severe bleeding, you should choose one of the methods to stop bleeding, then start its execution by following a pre-defined algorithm, while assisting needs to know to implement the General principles of first aid.
Algorithm of rendering first medical aid to the following:
- apply a sterile swab-a bandage, a clean cloth;
- possibly the victim themselves firmly presses the fabric to the wound;
- the injured limb should be raised to reduce bleeding;
- it is desirable to put the patient on the back;
- to correctly apply the bandage. If seepage of blood is necessary to impose a more sterile wipes,
- to perform additional bandaging over the previous;
- fingers after you apply the bandage to the limb should be exposed;
- if the toes after bandaging cool down, you should loosen the bandage;
- the finger pressure should be applied with arterial bleeding;
- a tourniquet helps stop blood bleeding.
Injury of musculoskeletal system
The most common are injuries of the musculoskeletal system in athletes, as well as preschool children.
This is due to their active lifestyle, with excessive activity.
In children of preschool age more likely to have sprains, strains, fractures rarely.
Cause of injury of musculoskeletal system acts as a fall, an accident, a sudden, awkward movement.
These injuries are of 4 kinds:
- fracture. Presented by the violation of the integrity of the bone;
- dislocation. The displacement of the bones in the joint, the cause of which is the influence of a large force;
- stretching and tearing of tendons, muscles. Occur when excessive load on the muscles. Most often injuries occur on the back, neck, thighs, drumsticks;
- tear, a sprain. Characterized by the movement of the bones beyond the normal range of motion.
The most common injuries to the ankle, knee, fingers, wrist.
For the prevention of injuries of the musculoskeletal system in preschool children, school age use exercise. Physical training for children helps to strengthen growing bodies and prevent injuries.
Manual first aid in case of injury of musculoskeletal system is performed strictly in order to avoid additional injury. According to the instructions, the sequence of actions should be performed thus:
- provision of rest;
- immobilization of the injured part of the body;
- applying cold. You can skip this step with an open fracture;
- ensuring high position of the body of the victim.
Poisonings often occur in the workplace, and in the home. In children of preschool age poisoning occur very often. The cause of poisoning in children for the most part is the carelessness of parents that is in the availability of household, poor child care.
Poisoning – ingestion of toxic substances inside the body in the following ways:
- through the mouth;
- respiratory tract;
Poisoning in children is more dangerous because of the weakness of their immune system.
For first aid at a poisoning there is also a user manual. Which contains actions which are required and those that are prohibited. Instruction involves the execution of actions:
- Determination of the substance that caused the poisoning.
- Remove poison from the body. The skin was washed with water, soda solution, saline solution. To cleanse gastric lavage, the use of instant funds.
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Carbon monoxide poisoning is very common in everyday life. The reason is the neglect of adults, children fire safety rules. Most often, the trouble happens when you drunk adults.
Manual of first aid for poisoning by carbon monoxide involves the following steps:
- The cessation of the effects of gas on the body. The victim go out, ventilate the room.
- In the presence of the victim is allowed to breathe pure oxygen, which is in the Cabinet of the ambulance staff.
- Loosen clothing that restricts the chest of the victim, to provide free access of air.
- If necessary, make artificial respiration (mouth to mouth, mouth to nose). In the presence of a first aid kit you can use a special mask.
Med means to protect
Medical personal protective equipment required for the provision of first medical aid. They are contained in the Cabinet of the ambulance staff. Means of first aid can be divided into:
- Service (dressings, medications, immobilization tires, hemostatic tourniquets). Personnel and equipment include first aid kit individual, as well as its modifications (first aid kit individual AI-1, first aid kit individual AI-1, AI-2).
- Henchmen (medicinal plants, materials used instead of tires (plywood, blackboard, shawl, scarf, garment, fabric, belt).
In the provision of medical care use of antiseptic from the first aid kit medical workers (povidone iodine 5% solution of potassium permanganate and 0.1 – 0.5%, ethyl alcohol 70% solution of 3% hydrogen peroxide, chloramine, furatsilin).