The visual perception of human
Visual analyzer, the strongest of all. With the help of vision a person perceives the reality around him, receives the primary information about the world. What he sees makes him positive or negative emotions, helps gain a deeper understanding of how life works around.
People with disabilities suffer not only from being unable to see something, they have a state of deprivation from the inability to fill the emotional sphere of new experiences. It is often possible to observe how the visually impaired personalities begin to more carefully listen to the uttered word, trying to somehow compensate for this disadvantage.
Features of visual perception
Like any other analyzer, the view has its own physiological characteristics, allowing him to fully perceive the objects and phenomena of the surrounding world.
The perception of colors
A healthy human eye is able to perceive all the existing colors. This phenomenon is possible due to the structure of the visual analyzer. Scientist Helmholtz has formulated the notion of sensitivity and determined, what determines the perception of green, red, purple and other colors. He said the violations, which are governed by the visual neurons in the cortex and create a feeling of the presence of a particular color.
The perception of space
Under the visual acuity is usually understood the ability to distinguish individual objects. The more clearly this feature, the brighter a person to see well. Visual acuity is tested using a specially designed table in which characters are arranged in such a way as to most clearly and completely reflect the real picture. The human eye is able to cover a sufficiently large space around them, to catch the smallest units that are both near and far. And at very close distance often some things are overlooked, and in the distance are perceived more clearly.
Perceptions of distance
Distance can be an obstacle for consideration of the person who is progressing or already have myopia. Otherwise, having a healthy vision, people do not have to complain about the fact that some objects located in the distance, they are not perceived clearly. At its core, the visual analyzer can equally well see both near and far.
Perception of darkness
The human eye has a unique ability to see in complete darkness. If the individual suddenly put in a dark space, it first will not see anything, can’t distinguish objects. But after a few moments the visual analyzer adapts to new conditions and is gradually becoming possible to discern the first outlines of individual objects, and then even to navigate in space. Defense mechanism, which is included in the structure of the eye, allows the person, finding themselves in extreme conditions, to maintain the ability to focus on the terrain.
Disorders of visual perception
Visually impaired people cannot perceive the world with the urgency that is available to a healthy person. Any impaired vision necessarily affects the ability of the eye to the accommodation and its own perception of objects and phenomena. It was experimentally shown that partially sighted people the speed of perception of objects is greatly reduced. That is, those who have trouble seeing, you first need to approach the subject at a certain distance, to consider it, and then to form the individual attitude. A healthy person can do the same steps almost instantly, with ease without worrying over what happens next.
Violation of the visual analyzer has a number of features and features that should be mentioned separately.
- Reduced ability to see in the dark. People who have in varying degrees, addicted vision, often complain that in the darkness even after two to five minutes eyes difficult to adapt, and they literally lose their spatial orientation. If a person abruptly move from a bright environment into a dark, it will be difficult to understand which direction to move. In this situation, apparently, only helps being in a familiar environment and understand the location of objects.
- A feeling of discomfort. The person who sees the bad, constantly experiencing a feeling of inferiority. He has much to strain in order to obtain the desired information. Despite all their efforts, however, he never owns the information in full, as part of it is necessarily lost. Often such a person is forced to reach out to others with a request for assistance (e.g. to read small text at a distance), which in itself can sometimes be accompanied by awkwardness and embarrassment.
- Psychological deprivation. That comes because a person in the course of life, one way or another, accustomed to comfortable conditions, which surround it. The ability to see is perceived not as a huge physical phenomenon, but rather as a given, without which it is impossible to do. Therefore, when the vision suddenly inexplicably begins to decline, the person is in a situation of confusion. Occurs depression of the soul, when it seems that the colors of the world melt away and never get better. If a person is forced to put aside their studies (for example, computer work), there is an additional sense of limitation and often, despair, until you provide real help and support.
Correction of visual perception
Any violation of the visual analyzer requires a mandatory correction. Unfortunately, at the present time, when most of the people prefer to spend their leisure not in communion with family and nature, and for computer and TV, vision deteriorates much faster than in previous years. The youth quietly spends more time in front of the monitor, thereby gradually «grows» eyes and even does not record these changes. Below are useful guidelines that will help preserve vision for a long time and improve it if there are small violations.
Routine inspection. Ophthalmologist need to visit at least one or two times a year. During this period, it is possible to detect visible changes in visual acuity and make the appropriate steps. If at the next inspection it turns out that eyesight has deteriorated, be sure to consult how to improve it. Often the initial step you need to take certain vitamins and eyesight will gradually begin to come back normal. Eye doctor will provide the necessary guidance, if needed, will prescribe corrective glasses.
Take breaks from working at the computer. Activities that require high concentration of attention and focusing gaze, sometimes leads to certain problems with vision. If your job requires constant sitting behind the monitor, there is reason to think and to take care of your health. You can’t sit for hours at the computer and not to look away. It is noticed that in such a situation, we blink much less, which leads to drying of the cornea. It will not hurt to buy eye drops, buy special glasses for the monitor, if the voltage happens every day.
To wear glasses, if they are shown. Many neglect this simple rule and continue to overtax your eyes. Instead of having to wear glasses, for some reason, people prefer to squint to experience some inconvenience. Some actually shy to wear glasses, others inconvenient, and others simply forget. Of course, when vision is reduced is not much, it is possible to do without this accessory. But if there is to be myopia severe, you will not do without them.
To perform exercises for the eyes. Everyone know that eye exercises have a high efficiency. But for some reason people make little use of this tool, although use of it is sometimes impossible to measure. And you only need to develop the habit of regularly performing these simple steps.
To give yourself reasonable breaks. The people whose profession is connected with computer, needs to understand that without daily worries about your eyes, they can gradually damage the eyesight. That is why it is necessary to take short breaks every hour for ten to fifteen minutes. At this time you can drink a Cup of tea or coffee, go outside to breathe fresh air or just walk around the room.
Development of visual perception
Here are exercises to correct reduced vision and contribute to its preservation for years to come. The development of visual perception begins with make an informed decision. If you follow these recommendations every day, the result will be noticeable after a week. Leave the tension and burning in the eyes.
- Palming. This exercise is sometimes called «the Warmth of your hands». Its essence consists in the following: you need to close your eyes, put them all in the palm of your hand and sit in this position for a few minutes. It is especially effective when you are very tired and the text on the screen already poorly perceived. For five to seven minutes to rest my eyes and you will feel better. Prerequisite: you close your eyes with your palms so that daylight did not penetrate. In this case, the dark will be affected as a therapeutic factor, providing a beneficial effect.
- Draw «snake». In a moment of extreme fatigue, you can try to draw the movement of the eyes of a snake, crawling right to left and then from left to right. This training is perfect for those who work requires constant focus and tension. Exercise allows you to relax your eye muscles and to restore visual acuity.
- Eye «circle». Mentally draw a circle and drive the eyes in a circle: up – right – down — left. Repeat a few times. The essence of this wonderful exercise is to be extremely careful to perform this action. During the exercise the eyes relax and rest.
- «In different directions». Chaotically try to make a simple eye movement up, down, right, left, watch in the far corner of the room and on the tip of his nose. The idea is to perform these steps in a clear sequence, and random. This achieves visual acuity and attention to detail.
Thus, the visual perception of human is a complex and highly organized process that requires careful and responsible approach. The work of the visual analyzer is very important for the entire body and, fortunately, it is correctable.