The types of human nature and their characteristics
Behavior and human activities find their expression all its individual characteristics and qualities that in their totality determine the nature of the individual. Under the character used in psychology to understand mental personality trait that is manifested in her personal relations to society, activities of, yourself, your life, other people. This system of properties is realized in the actions of man, his lifestyle, and is not only a precondition but also the result of his actual behavior in certain situations.
Despite the fact that all systems of man’s relationship his character finds its individual manifestation, presence and set of specific traits gives the opportunity to predict his reaction in a certain situation or a particular stimulus. The easiest thing you can do with a dedicated in psychological science, the so-called typical characters that allow to predict the behavior of people belonging to a specific type. So, for example, people who possess the internal traits of personality (according C. G. Jung) in many situations will behave very similar (default) – balanced, silently, thoughtfully, as they are very restrained in emotional expression.
Types of character – the complexity of determining
All existing types of nature arise from the conjunction and the subsequent synthesis of a great (but typical) traits. It should be noted that the type of character education is that much harder for the typical traits. For what could determine the specific type of character, it is necessary to identify the typical and most significant of its features, namely:
- the typical orientation of the person (interests, needs, attitudes, ideals, beliefs and the like);
- a typical manifestation of activity in different spheres of life (social, work, cognitive, etc.);
- typical emotionally-dynamic manifestation.
All these features definitely can not accurately determine the types of human nature. This is only possible in the complex relationship between all these features. It is also necessary to clarify that, despite the stability of personality as a complex education, it is also quite dynamic and plastic. This is because under the influence of various life circumstances, education, living conditions, cultural-historical level of development of the society, and the availability of requirements to himself, all the existing types of character and personality are undergoing some changes.
Classification of character types
Study of different types of character brought psychology to the creation of its classification, that is, before the science has been necessary to systematize the existing types. Classification of character types made possible thanks to establishing natural connections in their education and development. Such attempts by scientists-psychologists of different countries was made many and often they had to push on this path with its challenging obstacles. Because representatives of many psychological schools have tried to create their own classification of types of character, today a lot of them. But we must remember that to find a universal classification that would be able to combine all available types of characters (of different countries, ages and Nations) is impossible.
The first attempts to identify and describe the main types of nature were made by ancient Greek philosophers. So, Plato proposed to allocate the types of character, according to ethical principles, and Aristotle believed that a person’s character is determined by the structure and shape of a human face. Philosopher established the following regularity: people with rough character of the nose shape resembles an onion, a violent man – the nose pointed, and noble and powerful persons – a hooked nose will be. Also Aristotle paid particular attention to the similarity of human nature and of the animal (this similarity was determined by appearance), for example, a person with a fat nose like a bull evident laziness, but if the nose resembles a pig snout (wide, flared nostrils) is nonsense. But, of course, the scientific justification for Aristotle’s theory was never found.
Constitutional theory of nature
The most significant effect on the appearance of many classifications of nature have provided constitutional theory, the most prominent representatives of which are considered In. Sheldon and E. Kretschmer. Their typology was based on the relationships of the physical body Constitution of the person and features of his character (the table presents the relationship of body Constitution types according to the nature of constitutional theory).
Types of character for Sheldon, and V. E. Kretschmer
|The Typology Of E. Kretschmer||Typology W. Sheldon|
|Type of body Constitution||Character type||Type of body Constitution||Character type|
Definition of type character, referring to the Constitution of the body, face shape or condition of the endocrine glands are unable to find support for other psychological areas. So konstitoutsionna theory has been subjected to considerable criticism, which in turn led to the emergence of new ideas and thus new types of character.
Typology of character F.
Among other attempts to create a new typology of nature it is necessary to highlight the work of Frederik Pohl. He proposed a typology based on the laws of human mental activity, as well as on the study of certain tendencies of personality (form and content). Polan was divided into two typological lines, the first of which was based on the laws of combination of trends and circumstances. In this line, the scientist distinguished two sections. The first are the types of character with a predominance of:
- systematic Association (whole, balanced personality);
- systematic delay (and prudent people able to control himself);
- Association of opposites (nervous, complicated, contradictory people);
- Association by similarity and adjacency (the man acts depending on the situation).
The basis for the second section of the first typological lines Polan was laid formal features of the human tendencies that relied on:
- latitude (petty, wide/narrow);
- cleanliness (clean, restful/restless);
- force (emotive, passionate, agile, courageous/cowardly);
- resistance (stubborn, willful, strong, AC/DC);
- flexibility (flexible, rigid, soft/hard);
- sensitivity (mobile, impressionable, soft, cold).
The second line To the typology was based on the predominance of certain trends, namely:
- that about life (organic, spiritual);
- belong to the individuals;
- synthetic (combining both social and individual);
- supra (religious, philosophical and aesthetic trends);
- impersonal (orientation to pleasure, fulfillment of duties and achievement of certain benefits in a particular society).
Flaws in the typology Lana was enough, but he tried to fight prosperous at the time (it was in the 19th century) functionalism and schematic, pointing to the complexity and contradictions of human nature.
Types of nature according to Carl G. Jung
Modern psychology is widely welcomed typology of character, the well-known neofreudian Carl Gustav Jung. He suggested that all people can be divided into certain types, depending on their orientation: internally focused (introverted) and externally oriented (extroverts). So there was the extroverted and introverted types of personality character (the table presents a brief description of these types).
The types of human nature according to Jung K.
|extroverted||Focus on the object (or the outside world). Characteristic: absorption in their own thoughts and feelings, inattention, isolation.|
|introverted||Orientation to the subject (or internal world). Characteristic: activity, sociability, and high sociability, openness.|