The self-actualization of personality
Since then, as people began to realize himself, he began to ask questions about the structure of the world and about their place in nature and among other people. Many are still concerned about the problem of the appointment of homo sapiens on Earth, the search for the meaning of life. Answers to «eternal questions» looking for the philosophers, psychologists, theologians and people who are not indifferent to everything that happens to them and around them.
Depending on the historical era, religion, science, the human phenomenon was explained in different ways, from the perceptions of people as two-legged animals without feathers to the recognition of the divine nature of man. One of the scientific theories, allowing you to find answers to such complex questions is the theory of self-actualization (by A. Maslow, K. Rogers and others).
The concept of self-actualization
Under the self-actualization refers to the fulfillment of man’s task, after all, we all come into this world, and so the disclosure of abilities, talents, realization of the fact that the inherent nature within each of us. Self actualization of man is a process and a way of achieving meaningful goals for themselves.
In order to better understand what self actualization, it makes sense to consider the pyramid of needs Maslow. Scientist believed that all people, without exception, have roughly the following requirements:
- Physiological (food, drink, sleep). The same needs as other living beings. Without enough food, water and sleep, the body dies;
- In life safety. To prevent their own survival can and external factors: excessive cold and heat, natural disaster, lack of shelter, attack of a maniac, etc. If a person is not in danger, then he feels calm and confidence;
- In love. Having satisfied the above requirements, the person will be left alive, but is unlikely to feel happy. We all need love, support, friendships;
- In respect and recognition. That would not do people, it is important to feel successful. Really nice when the work receives a high rating, whether it is a masterpiece of art or just expertly cooked soup;
- In cognition and creativity. This need is most pronounced in children who ask too many questions and trying to experiment with everything that comes their way. Unfortunately, with age, the desire to know and do for most people is not so relevant;
- Aesthetic. Beauty is important for men as it is harmonious, and harmony creates a sense of stability and order. No wonder Dostoyevsky wrote that «beauty will save the world»;
- Spiritual. The needs of this level is self actualization. Personality samoustranyaetsya in self-knowledge, the desire to improve ourselves, to get as much knowledge about the world, to develop their abilities.
It is believed that in order to have a need for self-actualization, you must meet all the above requirements. However, life is complicated and diverse, so it is actually very easy. Suffice it to recall the great composer W. A. Mozart who wrote down the notes of his genius works on a piece of paper with a stubby pencil and not always had money for bread. And recognition in the life of a genius was the problem. At the same time, a more than wealthy people remain on the level of satisfaction of the needs outlined in the beginning of the list, or even degraded. Important role in the process of human evolution is its desire for self-actualization, and it, in turn, depends on the goals, motives, desires, attitudes and characteristics of personality development.
The process of self-actualization
What is self actualization? The answer is obvious: self-knowledge, to identify their capacities, abilities and needs. Here you may need the help of a specialist, because fair assessment itself is extremely difficult. An experienced psychologist will help to understand with complexes, imaginary or apparent problems and identify ways for improvement. If for some reason uncomfortable for an individual class, you can enroll to the training of personal growth.
The next stage is to seek means of self-realization, and there can be many: a labor of love, hobby, household and family relationships, travel, weeding of cucumbers in the summer cottage, etc, so that people understand that the selected occupation is his. In this case, the feeling of completeness of life will not keep itself waiting. On the contrary, the need to constantly do something that is not fun, contributes to dissatisfaction with yourself and others. The result will be stress, nervousness, and even serious diseases. Simply put, the man needs to be who he is and his way of life. Then all will be well.
If self-actualization is the inevitable choice. You have to choose them all (the dress in the store, school, place of work or leisure). However, according to Maslow, the primary human choice – between the pursuit of self-actualization and the conscious avoidance of it. The fact that self-improvement classes, creative activities suggests a way out of the so-called comfort zone, the destruction of stereotypes, overcoming challenges, changing attitudes in friendly and familiar, which makes it difficult to remain calm and feel protected. At the same time, if the person still will be on the path of self-actualization, nice bonuses would be:
- a sense of victory, including on yourself;
- increasing stress;
- the formation of new skills.
It is fundamentally important that the choice be made by himself and not under pressure from outside. We need to learn from childhood, therefore, an important task of parents and teachers is to give the child the opportunity to think independently and make decisions. In addition, the kid does not have to satisfy parental ambitions, in the process of education and development must proceed from the interests and needs of the growing person.
The ability to make choices is closely linked with the need to trust ourselves and take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. In fact, responsibility is a main indicator of growing up. If we are talking about career choices, life partner or just a way of spending free time, the choices made may not be approved by others. However, no one knows what a person needs better than he himself. Importantly, the implications of the choice are not contrary to the legislative and moral norms.
Finally, self-actualization is important to work tirelessly. Less talented, but hardworking people will achieve more than a gifted underachiever. Constant work on yourself will lead to success.
What prevents self-actualization
It would seem that the problem of self-actualization can be solved quite easily: chose your path and actions. In fact, all is not so simple. Full disclosure of their capabilities can interfere with:
- Our own laziness. The development of the movement forward is the application of effort, an overcoming of ourselves. Under the rolling stone gathers no moss; (h > itayte about laziness)
- Insecurities, complexes, fears. No one is immune from failure, however, conscious avoidance of difficulties may and will make life more peaceful, but will never lead to success; (read about self-doubt)
- The pressure of society. In some cultures (this is especially true for countries with a totalitarian regime) in the first place is not individual, but collective. Man is a cog in the state system, and any expression of individuality is suppressed, sometimes very hard. It is also difficult to implement yourself if your skills are not in demand and valued by others (as in a peasant family of the last century the ability of the child to draw or skillfully play a musical instrument could be perceived by parents as a whim, a distraction from the main occupation, agriculture);
- Low self-esteem, misconceptions about their abilities («I’ll never achieve», «It’s beyond me», etc.); (read about self esteem)
- The lack of proper motivation. If you do not understand, what for taking certain actions, the achievement of objectives is almost impossible. Anyway, the moral satisfaction from the effort will not be exact.
The problem of self-actualization
Most psychologists consider the self-actualization only as good. Is it bad if a person is looking for themselves, trying to find a use for his abilities? However, overly fixated on your personality to become more selfish, does not take into account the needs of others, not in a hurry to understand, to help, to support loved ones. In addition, the mere taking of any heights does not guarantee prosperity. Each person is an individual. Someone very important to sit in the big chair, and who will be content with the modest role of an ordinary employee or Housewives and feel happy (although these roles is also a kind of self-actualization).
Perfection is more of an ideal than a reality. According to Maslow, people who have reached self-actualization, constitute only 1% of all mankind, and even such «unusual personality» is not without drawbacks and free from problems. Therefore, in the process of self-actualization the main thing – not so much the pursuit of the ideal, how much realistic objectives ability to build relationships with other people, to strive for harmony with oneself and the surrounding world. If the person is self-sufficient and lives a full life, ready to take responsibility for their actions, then it is possible to speak as about the taken place personality.