The process of speech perception
Speech perception is a complex and interesting process that requires focused work of all mental processes and, mainly, of mental activity. Modern life is closely connected with speech. Almost all their actions we accompanied by certain statements and can’t live without interacting with other people. Communication is a key component of any activity, as any business in the modern world is built on some way to communicate with people. An exaggeration to say that the beginning of this 21st century is marked by big sales. And now not only sell direct sellers, as it was previously, but every other activity is subordinated to trade. There is a new profession: marketer, Manager, consultant, copywriter. They are all in varying degrees, necessarily involve close interaction with people.
Features of speech perception
The process of speech perception, in turn, is subordinate to the internal mechanism of the personality, the ability to beautifully and competently Express their thoughts. How people perceive the speech of another, depends on many factors. Not the last role is played here by such things as tone of voice, speed of speech, intonation. It is known that at fast speech rate, the individual shows less of a focus on than when slower. Interest in the subject also imposes a significant imprint on the process of hearings and playback of speech. When information is useful and the individual is aware of its importance, is the so-called reasoned the hearing, that is due to external necessity.
Level of perception language
In modern psychological science there are several levels of speech perception. The data structural components are suitable for «live», it is spoken by the subject of activity of speech.
- The perception of voices. On a subconscious level, each person perceives the other person’s voice. Whether we like it or not, but others have on us significant influence. In fact, we perceive primarily not what we say, and what tone the words are spoken. If the voice of a certain person from the beginning makes us fear and concerns, it does not matter what he says. Our perception unconsciously adjusted to isolate itself or to avoid new information. And even if it can really be helpful, the words will not be heard and accepted.
- The perception of timbre and speech speed. Multiple studies have confirmed that in the second place, the person perceives the timbre and speed of speech. If the speaker pronounces words, in line with our own views, and consistent with the individual characteristics of the sentence, then, a language much faster will resonate. Otherwise, we have listened largely to reconfigure themselves, to feel discomfort and tension for better assimilation and comprehension of information. That is why not all students in class easily perceive the speech of the teacher. That is why the lecturer himself must have the personal charisma to motivate his performance.
- The perception of the meaning of the utterance. The third stage is entering in the center of perception – a brain structure. If at the previous levels all went well and the person is not emotionally cut off from a listener, the meaning of the utterance reaches its goal. The perception of the meaning of the utterance happens easily and freely in the case when the most people are located to each other and between them there is mutual claims, fear or prejudice.
- Receiving and processing received information. When the speech of the speaker was correctly heard by the interlocutor, in the future is learning. It is necessary to understand, to comprehend, to make his. All of this takes time and, consequently, strong-willed efforts. The human brain requires a certain period for effective learning.
The formation of the corresponding statements
Last but not least, an important component of speech perception is the creation of appropriate cues that would meet the language of the interlocutor’s statements. The modeling offers and the proclamation is done through the participation of the vocal cords. Before you find the right words, you need to understand the true motives and intentions of the interlocutor. As a rule, in response to the statements, the tone and force of impact is correlated with the primary voice message coming from the Communicator. In other words, the recipient is almost always emotionally on the same wave length as the person who started the conversation, or adapts to it.
The perception of oral speech
There is no doubt that the speech spoken by a voice different from writing, that is, perceived through the symbol. The fact that the perception of spoken language has its own characteristics that are not found in writing. Speaking itself is a complex and multilevel phenomenon.
- Emotional background. No one will argue with the fact that writing can be beautiful and exciting, but live it, painted epithets and expresses a variety of feelings always wins. The ability of the individual in the conversation to convey your feelings to share the mood are peculiar only to the human race. In conversation, recipient show each other a source of knowledge that is better absorbed with the help of speech. Otherwise, any training was possible only from books, without a teacher, a living example before eyes.
- The form of a dialogue. Oral speech is born mainly in the conversation between the participants. The form of the dialogue allows everyone to speak, to Express themselves, defend their point of view and even (in many cases) to convince another of the correctness. In the dialogue the identity is revealed as much as possible and therefore all the complex issues are resolved much more efficiently.
- Satisfaction of needs in communication. The man is such that he cannot do without interacting with other people. Even very lonely people all the same in varying degrees, require the presence of interlocutors, at least in order to share their thoughts. The need to communicate is one of the main in a healthy person. Through language it becomes possible to implement it in full.
- The exchange of information. In the process of interaction between people is an exchange of existing knowledge, emotions. Information that could be helpful to one individual may have more. In communication we always get and give. If the person is closed in relation to that share, she, unfortunately, cannot truly and accept. And Vice versa.
- The connection of the understanding with the content statement. Understanding the meaning of speech is formed primarily on the basis of the information. Famous or not, a pleasant companion – all this is of great importance. The more meaningful the information is, the easier and more interesting to learn.
The perception of writing
Visual perception and speech are closely related to each other. It is noticed that the more a person reads, the more formed and competent you can call it a language. The process of perception of written speech is characterized by several features.
- The role of iconic images. We perceive any text by reading it. Sentence consists of separate words, and those of the letters. Before a person learns to read, she has to master the iconic system – defined symbols.
- The form of a monologue. Unlike live conversations, in written speech we have to «listen» to the author’s position. That is, the perception is from reading material, not in the form of question and answer. Mentally, of course, can be the author of the spiritual dialogue on philosophical and scientific topics, but mostly, the reader only learns presented in the book information.
- The distance of the effect in time. In the study of certain information often occurs form our own opinions on a specific issue, establishing individual points of view and opinions. But all this becomes possible only as a result of active reflection on the reading material, which ensures its best utilization.
- Willful effort. Sometimes, in order to effectively perceive the necessary information, you must make an effort, that is to force yourself to perform the actions, which at the moment perform not want to. Regular classes and reading serious literature disciplinary, help to develop self-confidence.
Disorders of speech perception
People who suffer these or other disorders, sometimes find themselves in violation of speech perception. Such changes manifest themselves in the fact that people can not memorize the text after repeated repetition is not able to allocate the main idea in read and cannot learn to read. Most often speech disorders affects people with obvious physical disabilities who have varying degrees of mental deficiency.
- Disorders understanding speech. Manifested in the inability to focus on the interaction with another person. Such a person may not be perceived as separate words and whole phrases addressed to him. He confuses concepts, replaces the word «touches» in their letters. Sometimes these changes in consciousness occur as a result of accidents.
- Reading. This type of disorder occurs if damage in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, temporal and occipital lobes. This may experience the following picture: the patient knows the names of all the letters, understand the content of the texts, if he read aloud, but he can not lay down on the syllables.
The development of speech perception
To the development of speech was carried out fully, you have in the classroom to affect all its components: physical, phonemic and speech hearing. Only a comprehensive approach will allow to achieve high results.
- The development of physical hearing. This includes the ability to perceive sounds from the environment. If a person suffers from hearing loss or complete deafness, language development is difficult, and in the second case, an almost impossible task. When violations of physical hearing, you must arrange for private lessons, contributing to the alignment of the individual development.
- The development of phonemic hearing. Includes development of the ability to distinguish between similar sounding words, forming correct pronunciation of the words, the utterance endings. If phonemic hearing is developed to a sufficient degree, these knowledge contribute to the building of coherent speech, understanding the content of the narrative, the rapid mastery of reading and writing.
- Development of speech hearing. This ability consists of several components that are closely interrelated: the ability to understand recorded speech, to build the logical connections between objects and phenomena, to model proposals and conceptual sections of the text, to use their native language in accordance with the literary norm, to understand the intonation, the meaning of words and separate phrases. For best results it is recommended to give assignments to the compilation and retelling of the text.
Thus, the process of speech perception is a complex multilevel system, which is subject to the mechanisms of human interaction with the environment. How well he will be able to learn its laws and regulations, depends on the degree of its socialisation.