Mental retardation is not a death sentence!

mental retardation

When children arrive in grade 1 and begin to learn their first knowledge, using a very short time becomes apparent that some all turns out very well, and some learning problems. What is the reason? First of all, that someone of more knowledge, stronger health, stable psyche, and therefore progress better. Well, someone’s all the way around.

Children who have difficulty learning, and their mental development is not exactly the norm, but there are prerequisites alignment, are diagnosed with: mental retardation, that is, mental retardation.

The study of mental retardation as a disease began in the 50s of the last century. The basis of the research formed what scientists have noticed that among underachieving students meet students who number of knowledge and behavior is very similar to the mentally retarded. They have slow thinking, unstable attention, trouble remembering. But with the creation of favorable conditions in these children was evident significant progress, indicating that they are not mentally retarded. They were classified in a separate group, which began to be considered the border between normality and retardation. If to represent this schematically, the level of intellectual development will be located:

the level of intellectual development

Now, scientists have clearly determined that a delay of mental development (DSD) is a reversible disruption of intellectual and mental process in the child. These deviations are overcome in the organization of special correctional training and education.

Causes of mental retardation

The etymology of the disease is quite extensive. But the main factors considered to be:

  • biological;
  • socio-psychological.

Causes of mental retardation biological nature is considered to be:

  • organic damage of the Central nervous system structurally unstable nature.
  • birth injuries;
  • intrauterine infection;
  • rhesus conflict;
  • hypoxia of the fetus;
  • prematurity;
  • jaundice of newborns;
  • the influenza at an early age;
  • rickets;
  • bad heredity (presence of mental retardation in one of the parents);
  • traumatic brain injury;
  • epilepsy, etc.

Causes of mental retardation social and psychological character is the accommodation of children in families:

  • disadvantaged;
  • where there is the authoritarian character of education;
  • where there is a Hyper.

Under conditions of social deprivation, yooichi, lack of communication with peers the child has development delay.

Also, the CRA can become a secondary defect in children with visual impairments, hearing and speech, which do not undergo a special rehabilitation special needs teacher, because they have broken the touch standards, which hinders the correct perception of the world.

Types of mental retardation

There are several classifications of mental retardation. But the most common is the classification Lebedinsky K. S., which divides mental retardation into four categories:

  • Constitutional delay of mental development.
  • Somatogenic mental retardation.
  • Psychogenic of mental retardation.
  • Cerebral organic mental retardation.

Constitutional delay of mental development

Mental retardation of constitutional origin, usually inherited. Characteristics of the child are as follows:

  • immature physique;
  • mental infantilism;
  • motivation to learn is low;
  • slow thinking, memory, speech.

The kid’s pretty good-natured, his mood is always good, quickly forgive all wrongs. The school developed rapidly, but the rules of conduct does not accept: you may play during the learning process, often distracted, often late for lessons. Not paying for training attention. The rating for him is not important. He was interested in his lessons that he learned and engaged. Therefore, that child immediately becomes unsuccessful.

Forecasting the future course of the disease:

Constitutional delay of mental development can be corrected. Result in appropriate corrective training and education are favorable. To influence the child through the game. It is advisable to leave it on a repeated course. It it absolutely does not hurt. There is a high probability that within a year he formed all mental processes, and he will be able to continue training on a regular program.

Mental retardation somatogenic Genesis

Mental retardation somatogenic Genesis has no heredity. As a rule, children are born healthy, without deviation. But as a result of diseases such as dystrophy, chronic infections, persistent fatigue, they begin to suffer from an early age, in which there is a decline in intelligence.

Characteristics of the child:

  • social disaproval;
  • motivation to learn is low;
  • reduced the emotional-volitional sphere;
  • possible affective braking.

Such children difficult adapt to the team, so they often cry. As a rule, passive, passive, not interested in anything. The situation around themselves perceive adequately, but the desire to achieve certain goals. Very sluggish. Difficulties to overcome on their own can’t. Learn bad, so quickly get tired and start to feel bad. Often complain of headaches, cramps in the heart region.

Forecasting the future course of the disease:

Kids who have a somatogenic mental retardation, needs constant medical care and supervision of the teacher. It is better to study in the schools of sanatorium type, so as to create a special drug regimen in school will be difficult. In this case, is dominated by a somatic disease, which slows down the development of intelligence and mental functions in full.

Mental retardation psychogenic Genesis

Children with mental retardation psychogenic Genesis have normal physical development, somatic completely healthy, but their inherent brain dysfunction, the cause of which often become adverse living conditions and upbringing.

Characteristics of the child:

  • intellect is reduced;
  • emotions surface;
  • infantile behavior;
  • unstable attention;
  • the increased anxiety.

The child acquires such deviations, because they do not feel warmth from the people close to him. Such children usually grow up in dysfunctional families. Where there is permissiveness and indifference to the baby, it is possible impulsive reactions, and antisocial behavior.

Unwell child in an authoritarian family, where there is some conflict. He is often punished unjustly. Therefore, children from such families are always depressed, very anxious, to the possible flash of aggression.

Forecasting the future course of the disease:

Psychogenic DSD Genesis easy to overcome. It is enough to be interested in the baby and to find her individual approach.

Mental retardation cerebral-organic Genesis

Children with mental retardation of cerebral-organic Genesis of local cerebral functions. This is the result of pathology of pregnancy (toxemia, influenza, alcoholism and drug addiction of the mother), birth defects, serious illnesses at an early age.

Characteristics of the child:

  • large fatigue;
  • reduced performance;
  • a reduced level of attention and memory;
  • slow thinking;
  • the training is hard.

These children do not build relationships with their peers. Their wishes are paramount. Don’t understand the prohibitions and observations.

Forecasting the future course of the disease:

To train such children it is difficult in a usual manner. They need constant remedial support teachers. It makes sense to teach in a special program for children with mental retardation.

Diagnosis of children with mental retardation


To determine the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a full medical and mental evaluation. A conclusion on its level of development collectively makes the psychological-medical-pedagogical Commission, which pre-assembles and examines the medical history of the child, analyzes the conditions of his life, met with neuropsychological findings, the diagnosis of language. Necessarily members of the Commission, whose members included a doctor, psychologist, speech therapist, speech pathologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, conduct interviews with the child, exploring his emotional and volitional qualities, and only after that they are issuing a diagnosis, given certain recommendations for training and education.

Mental retardation is often made to a child of 4-5 years when he starts kindergarten. Then on the background of peers becomes noticeable slow development of the baby. Do not be afraid. The sooner you begin correctional work with the child, the faster it is aligned intellectually and mentally.

The delay of mental development and put the younger students. It was during this period, the disease manifests itself most clearly. But a timely correction is an opportunity to help the child develop properly.

After alignment of the child’s intellectual and all mental processes the diagnosis of «mental retardation» removed. If before the end of Junior school with permanent correction work in the student not changes are observed, then raised the issue of his possible mental retardation.

The differences between mental retardation and mental retardation

With DSD, the child always there are improvements in intellectual and mental development, if he have a professional help, while mental retardation is impossible.

Children with mental retardation gladly accept help from adults and carry their new knowledge and skills in other subjects independently. For children with mental retardation, such operations are practically not feasible, since they do not know how to analyze and organize operations perform only the simplest.

The child with mental retardation in the individual approach there is a strong enough motivation to accept knowledge. In mentally retarded such desires are not observed.

According to statistics 50% of underachieving children have a delay in mental development. It is believed that about 15% of the total child population had some minor problems in development. But with the creation of favorable conditions, these problems are easily resolved in favor of the child.

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