Personality: the art of being yourself
Be yourself. All the other places are already occupied. Oscar Wilde
Each person has a specific combination of properties, features and characteristics that make up its personality. The term comes from the Latin individuumи literally means individual. The concept of personality in psychology is used to describe two phenomena:
- the personal differences of psychological properties of specific individuals;
- the highest level of the hierarchical order, the unity of qualities of the human psyche (the so-called integrated personality).
What is personality?
Personality – the fundamental characteristics of personality that distinguishes a particular individual from other people, its uniqueness and originality that defines the identity of the mental sphere. It manifests itself in the complex of psychological features, including:
- the peculiarity of the dynamic properties of the psyche – temperament;
- collectively, the permanent characteristics of a person, character;
- peculiar habits;
- the prevailing capture;
- the quality of cognitive activity (perception, thinking, memory, imagination);
- the structure of abilities;
- the manner of communication;
- the desired style of activity.
In the description of identity it is not enough to specify a unique personality, but it is necessary to describe the peculiar relationship between the above properties.
No two people with completely identical configuration, to individually-psychological properties: the uniqueness of the individual is expressed in its individuality. According to some groups of psychological areas, personality and individuality though and form a unity, but is not the identity concept. Individuality is one of the aspects of the personality of the individual, features which remain «silent» until they did not gain significance in the system of interpersonal relations.
How is the individuality?
Partly manifestations of the typological features of the person seen in the newborn infant. However, individuality in infants is manifested within a relatively narrow range: the way of the perception of reality and features of the response to internal and external stimuli. The beginnings of personality have a biological basis: a genetic feature of the structure of the Central nervous system and innate set of instincts.
To a greater extent individual characteristics – acquired properties of the personality, formed by the waters the influence of various factors, among which are:
- The environment in which the individual was born and where he passed the personality;
- The events of childhood, related associations and developed behavior response;
- Adopted the style of education in the family, the manner of treatment of parents with the child.
In the words of La Rochefoucauld: «We are so used to wear masks before others that eventually began to wear masks even in front of him». Indeed, the individual only has physical characteristics, personality characteristic of the personality. Typological traits and individual differences are subjected to various transformations with the development and growth of the individual, reach a definite climax to the period of maturity of the individual.
What characterizes individuality?
An important criterion in the description of human individuality – a qualitative and quantitative analysis of his abilities. Intellectual ability is a special feature of the psyche, which determines the ability of the person to productive mastering knowledge and skills. However, mental giftedness is not a fact of knowledge as a prerequisite for their easy absorption in the person is interested in the areas of congenital and hereditary predisposition.
In some cases, the term implies the presence of original features, which clearly distinguishes the person from others, makes a person completely different from the other people. To her strong personality can be attributed awakened the talent in the intellectual field, intellectual giftedness in a deliberately chosen direction of interest. «Hidden», less visible to others, however important for human expression of individuality is developed volitional sphere with internal (inner) locus of control that gives people self-control, patience, judgment, the proper motivation an act of will.
However, not all social features, even pronounced and attracted the attention of others, properly be called a manifestation of individuality. For example: the social habits of a person, such as a specific tone and outstanding volume of the voice, the habits of a liar, a tendency to constant hypocrisy, incorrectly attributed to the manifestations of the personality. However, some therapists call personality any the characteristics of a person that likes to have a comfortable and meaningful for the individual. This approach allows features that are perceived by society as weaknesses, are manifestations of the identity of the individual. According to most experts in the field of psychology, sociology, pedagogy the term «personality» refers only positive personality characteristics were perceived by society with respect and admiration.
Important, partly philosophical, question: whether a person’s personality? The uniqueness is essentially neither good nor bad. In a society that lives according to the patterns unique, different from everyone personality is perceived as a white crow. However, in the modern world to stand out from the crowd and have a personality – a prestigious, fashionable and, most importantly, in demand.