A child with developmental disabilities: how to define pathology?
The dream of all parents to have healthy and happy children. For this many couples before conceiving a child undergo thorough examination, lead a healthy lifestyle, fulfill all the requirements of a doctor. But… the Human body is not as predictable as we would like. Doctors are not always Almighty. And here in the family had a child – sweet, beautiful, gentle, affectionate.
He has abnormalities? This is to determine not just. Some defects are detected immediately at birth. Well, there are those who begin to make itself felt with the development of the baby.
The causes of deviations in development of children
What can influence the occurrence of abnormalities in the development of the child? Experts define two main factors, which are considered the main causes of defects in the development of the child:
- the environmental factors.
If hereditary pathology medicine tries to identify in the early stages, with environmental factors more complicated as they predict very difficult. By these are meant, first, various infectious diseases, trauma and intoxication. At the time of their action on the body experts define pathology:
- prenatal (intrauterine);
- Natal (during birth);
- postnatal (after birth).
Secondly, on the child’s development is significantly affected by such factors as the social environment in which he grows up. If it is negative, then at some point it can be stated in the child’s development the following issues:
- emotional deprivation;
- educational neglect;
- social neglect.
Types of deviations in development of children
So such deviation is in the child’s development? It is a violation of his psychomotor functions, which arise when the adverse effects of various factors on the brain. As a result, there are the following types of deviations in development of children:
A group of children who have physical abnormalities are those who have diseases that complicate their operation, as well as children with violations of sight, hearing and musculoskeletal system.
The group with mental disabilities include children with mental retardation, mental retardation, speech disorders and emotional-volitional sphere.
Group with teaching disabilities are those children who for certain reasons have not received secondary education.
The group with social disabilities are those children who are the result of education had not been vaccinated with a function that significantly affect their entry into a social environment that is affecting the behavior and consciousness while staying in a social group. Unlike the first three groups social deviance (anger, anxiety, apathy, hyperactivity, suggestibility significant) are difficult to distinguish from the natural manifestations of the child’s character. In these cases, it is of great importance for therapeutic intervention, and prevention of possible deviations from rules and standards.
By the way, a gifted child is also a deviation from the norm, and these children constitute a separate group.
Definition of norm in child development
So what is normal for a child? This, above all:
- The level of development corresponds to a majority of peers, among which it grows.
- Its behavior corresponds to the demands of society: the child is not antisocial.
- It develops according to the individual inclinations, it clearly overcomes the negative influence both from the side of your body and the environment.
Therefore, the conclusion can be drawn is this: not every child with developmental disabilities from birth already is not the norm and, conversely, a healthy child at birth does not always live up to standards as a result of development.
The child develops according to the norm:
- the proper working of the brain and its cortex;
- normal mental development;
- the safety of the senses;
- sequential training.
The question may arise of whether these points for children with existing disabilities. Once we define such a moment that a child with physical and mental defect have to undergo a full rehabilitation from the first days. This includes not only medical intervention but also pedagogical correction. Thanks to the joint efforts of parents (in the first place!), medical and special needs teachers a pathology in the development of the psyche can be avoided with compensation processes that are possible in children with disabilities.
Not everything will run simply and smoothly. But the child with physical disabilities can and should develop accordingly. For this he needs the help of specialists and boundless love and patience of parents. Certain successes are possible in children with mental disorders. Each case requires an individual approach.
What are the periods most clearly demonstrate the possible deviations in physical and mental development of the child?
Each sensitive period is determined by the amount of knowledge, abilities and skills required to operate a child. Most experts believe that special attention should be given to children during crisis periods in life that fall into this age:
- primary school;
The child’s behavior should be alerted with the purpose of prevention of deviations in its development?
In the preschool years:
- The result of pathogenic effects on the brain and its cortex violated the normal ratio between irritable and brake processes. If the child is difficult to control the braking reactions on the ban, he can not organize their behavior even in the game, it could be one of the signals that the child has deviations in development.
- A child fantasizes excessively or, conversely, quite primitive in their stories when trying to get out of the predicament.
- The child is prone to imitation of wrong behaviour which may be indicative of easy suggestibility.
- Infantile (underdeveloped) emotional manifestations in the form of loud screaming, crying, or movements that are not age-appropriate (popping down).
- Temper, impulsive behavior for any minor reason, which leads to a quarrel or even a fight.
- Full of negativity, disobedience, senior with pronounced aggression, anger at the remark, a ban or punishment.
In the Junior school age:
- Low cognitive activity, which is combined with the personal immaturity.
- Negative attitude to the lessons, refusal to perform tasks with a desire to draw attention to themselves with rudeness, disobedience.
- Availability by the end of primary school age are significant knowledge gaps, which are accompanied by unwillingness to learn.
- Pull and interest in what is aggression and cruelty. Anti-social behavior.
- To any prohibition or requirement corresponding reaction stormy, carrying a conflict, a possible escape from home.
- The desire for the thrill as a result of enhanced sensory thirst.
- Immature judgment, are weak functions of self-regulation and self-control, no willpower.
- Complex behavior, which is accompanied by immaturity and affective excitability.
- Early sexual desire, tendency to alcoholism, vagrancy.
- Completely negative attitude towards learning.
- Antisocial behavior which simulates an improper way adult life.
Antisocial behavior in a child can cause congenital abnormalities, but a wrong education, which is accompanied by lack of control, antisocial behavior of family members or their brute authoritarianism.
What to do if the child has deviations in development?
In order to determine whether there are deviations in the child’s development or age is just a manifestation of nature, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis. Diagnosis is possible only after a full examination with the participation of various experts, among whom must be a physician, psychologist, speech therapist, speech pathologist.
You need to remember that one symptom a conclusion about the mental development of the child were never intended.
To conclude and to determine the level of opportunities a little patient, there are psycho-medico-pedagogical consultations (PMPC), staffed by narrow specialists, whose duty is to examine a child, counsel parents and to start if necessary, corrective work.
You need to remember: first, the diagnosis of mental development can only supply specialist, and secondly, the doctor is not a death sentence and not a label for life. After the time with a favorable impact on the child’s diagnosis may be changed.
Types of diagnostics of deviations in child development
For a full analysis of the health diagnostics is carried out:
During the medical diagnosis:
- General inspection of the child;
- the analysis of anamnesis (it is important that information provided to the mother);
- assessment of the status of the child as neurological and mental.
Attention is drawn to how developed the child’s emotional sphere, what his level of intelligence and age-appropriate, great importance is speech development, as well as mental. The doctor, if necessary, analyzes the results of the x-ray of skull, CT, EEG.
During the General examination, the doctor gives the conclusion about the structure of the skull, proportionality of the face, especially of the limbs, body, etc., on the work of sensory systems (hearing, sight). Data are subjective and objective. Objective are those that are provided by the ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist using special equipment.
Sometimes even visually, the structure of the skull and face, growth of the baby, the doctor is able to establish such congenital abnormalities:
- micro — and macrocephaly;
- down syndrome;
- strabismus, etc.
Be sure to condition the nervous system, namely, the existence of paralysis, paresis, hyperkinesis, tremor, ticks and so on. Examines the structure of the speech apparatus in the presence of such abnormalities as:
- narrow Gothic palate;
- cleft hard and soft palate;
- cleft lip;
- cropped hyoid ligament.
It looks at the bite and placement of teeth.
Examination of mental functions begins with the study of children’s living conditions and how he was raised. These circumstances are pivotal in ontogenesis. In the diagnosis of abnormalities in the development of the child are taken into account the characteristics of each age period. Analysis and research subject to such mental functions:
- emotional sphere, etc.
Best of all, the child opens the game, during which you can carry out a diagnostic observation of his behavior, to communicate, to conduct a teaching experiment. Communication with him will give the opportunity to assess the level of development, according to age, which uses terms, the proposal is that the child’s vocabulary, active in the game, can design, concentrate how long can I switch to another activity, has a cognitive interest as conducting analysis of productive activities, to bring it started to end.
It uses a variety of visual material. Emotional background should be comfortable for the child. Methods and techniques of work pick the defect, which is present in the child for the deaf allow you to respond with gestures for the visually impaired pick up clear images, for the mentally retarded are simple tasks. The child should not give up the game. This is the main task of the person who diagnoses.
The most difficult to examine these patients: blind, deaf and dumb, do not understand, children with disturbed behavior, which reduces the level of motivation and bathroomsink. It is also hard to diagnose those who have multiple deviations, as it is difficult to define the primary defect and what it entailed and how deep.
Only after a thorough medical and psychological diagnosis determined by the diagnosis that are assigned to remedial classes. Their goal is to maximize to fill according to the intellectual and mental capabilities of the child those gaps that have arisen as a result of improper upbringing and development.