Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge about the world and about himself. Knowledge begins with the moment when a person begins to ask themselves the questions: who am I, why come to this world, what mission must perform. Cognition is a continuous process. It happens even when the person is not aware of what thoughts lead to his actions and deeds. Cognition as a process of studying a number of Sciences: psychology, philosophy, sociology, research methodology, history and sociology of science. The goal of any knowledge lies in self-improvement and expanding your horizons.
The structure of knowledge
Cognition as a scientific category has a distinct structure. Knowledge necessarily includes in itself the subject and object. Under the subject understands the self that is engaged in active steps to implement the knowledge. The object of knowledge is called what the focus of the subject. As the object of knowledge, there may be other people, natural and social phenomena, any items.
Methods of cognition
Under the methods of learning understand the tools by which the process of acquiring new knowledge about the world. Methods of cognition is conventionally divided into empirical and theoretical.
Empirical methods of cognition
Empirical methods of cognition involve the study of an object using any of the research actions confirmed empirically. To the empirical methods of knowledge include observation, experiment, measurement, comparison.
- Observation is a method of cognition, which is the study of the subject without direct interaction with him. In other words, the observer can be placed at a distance from the object of knowledge and thus to obtain the information he needs. Through observation, the subject can draw their own conclusions on a particular issue, to build an additional assumption. Observation method is widely used in the activity psychologists, medical personnel, social workers.
- An experiment is a method of cognition, in which there is a dip in a specially created environment. This method of knowledge implies a certain abstraction from the outside world. In an experiment conducted scientific research. During this method of knowledge is confirmed or refuted the hypothesis.
- Dimension represents the analysis of any parameters of the object of knowledge: weight, size, length, etc. the comparison is a comparison of important characteristics of the object of knowledge.
Theoretical methods of cognition
Theoretical methods of cognition involve the study of the object by analyzing the different categories and concepts. Put forward the truth of the hypothesis is not confirmed empirically, and account for the assumptions and final conclusions. The theoretical methods of cognition are: analysis, synthesis, classification, generalization, concretization, abstraction, analogy, deduction, induction, idealization, modeling, formalization.
- Analysis involves mental parsing the whole object of knowledge into small pieces. The analysis revealed the relationship of the components among themselves, their differences and other features. Analysis as method of knowledge is widely used in scientific and research activities.
- Synthesis involves combining separate parts into a unified whole, identifying the link between them. Synthesis is actively used in the process of all knowledge: in order to accept the new information, it is necessary to correlate it with existing knowledge.
- Classification is grouping objects, grouped according to specific parameters.
- Generalization involves grouping separate items main characteristics.
- Concretization is a process of refinement, carried out with the aim of focusing on important parts of the object or phenomenon.
- Abstraction involves focusing on the private side to a specific subject to identify a new approach to acquire a different perspective on the studied issue. However, other components are not considered, not taken into account or not given sufficient attention.
- The analogy is carried out to detect the presence of the object of knowledge of similar objects.
- Deduction is the transition from the General to the particular the result proved in the process of knowledge reasoning.
- Induction is the transition from the particular to the General the result is proved in the process of knowledge reasoning.
- Idealization involves the formation of separate concepts that denote the subject, which does not exist in reality.
- The simulation involves the formation and subsequent investigation of any category of existing objects in the learning process.
- Formalization reflects the objects or phenomena by using the established characters: letters, numbers, formulas, or other symbols.
The types of knowledge
Under the types of knowledge refers to the main directions of human consciousness, by means of which the process of cognition. They are sometimes called forms of knowledge.
This type of knowledge involves getting the person basic information about the world in the process of life. Ordinary knowledge is, even of the child. Little man, getting the necessary knowledge, making their insights and gaining experience. Even if a negative experience comes, in the future it will help to form such qualities as prudence, diligence, prudence. A responsible approach is developed through the understanding of lessons learned, interior of his residence. In the result of ordinary cognition in personality perceives how, and how not to act in life, what to expect, and what should be forgotten. Ordinary knowledge is based on elementary ideas about the world and relationships between the existing objects. It does not affect cultural values, not considering the worldview of the individual, his religious and moral orientation. Ordinary knowledge seeks only to satisfy the immediate request of reality. A person simply gather the necessary for the future functioning of useful experience and knowledge.
This type of knowledge is based on logical approach. Its other name – rational cognition. There is an important role a detailed examination of the situation, that surrounds the subject. Using a scientific approach is the analysis of existing objects, make the appropriate conclusions. Scientific knowledge is widely used in research projects in any direction. With the help of science to prove or disprove the truth of many facts. The scientific approach is subordinated to a plurality of components, a greater role played by causal relationships.
In the scientific activities of the learning process is done by proposing hypotheses and bring them in a practical way. As a result of the research scientist can confirm my assumptions or completely abandon them if the end product will not meet the stated objectives. Scientific knowledge is based primarily on logic and common sense.
This type of knowledge is also called creative. This knowledge is based on images and affects the intellectual activities of the individual. Here the truth of any statement we can prove in a scientific way, because the artist is faced with the category of the beautiful. The reality is reflected in artistic images, and not constructed by the method of mental analysis. Artistic knowledge is boundless in nature. The nature of creative cognition of the world is that man himself is a model of the image in my head with thoughts and ideas. Created this way the material is an individual creative product and gets right to exist. Every artist has their inner world, which he reveals to other people through creative activities: the artist paints, the writer of the book, the musician composes music. All creative thinking has its own truth and fiction.
This type of knowledge is the intention to interpret the reality using the determination of man’s place in the world. For philosophical knowledge of the typical search for individual truth, and constant reflection on the meaning of life, the appeal to such concepts as conscience, purity, love, talent. Philosophy attempts to penetrate the essence of the most difficult categories to explain the mystical and eternal things, to define the essence of human existence, the existential questions of choice. Philosophical cognition aims at a deeper understanding of controversial issues being. Often as a result of this study, the figure comes to understanding the ambivalence of everything. Philosophical campaign suggests a vision of the second (hidden) side of any object, phenomenon, or judgment.
This type of knowledge is aimed at the study of the relationship of man with higher powers. God here is seen both as an object of study, and at the same time as the subject, since religious consciousness involves the glorification of the divine. Religious people interpreterpath all the events that happen from the point of view of divine Providence. He analyzes its internal state, mood, and waiting for a specific response on top of those or other actions committed in life. For him the crucial spiritual component of any business, moral and ethical foundations. Such a person often sincerely wishes others to have happiness and want to do the will of God. Customized religious consciousness involves finding the only correct truth, which would be useful to many, and not one particular person. The questions posed to the individual: what is good and evil, how to live according to conscience, what is the sacred duty of each of us.
This type of knowledge refers to primitive society. It is a variant of the knowledge of the person who considered themselves an integral part of nature. The ancients sought the answer to the questions about the essence of life differently than modern, they are endowed with the nature of divine power. That’s why mythological consciousness had formed their gods and the appropriate attitude. Primitive society had taken responsibility for what happens in everyday reality and completely turned to nature.
This type of knowledge is aimed at the study of their true States, moods and insights. Self-knowledge always involves a deep analysis of their own feelings, thoughts, actions, ideals, aspirations. Those who are actively involved in self-knowledge for several years, said have ourselves a highly developed intuition. Such a person will not get lost in the crowd, not to succumb to «herd» feeling, and will make responsible decisions on their own. Self-knowledge leads a person to understanding their motives, comprehension of past years and of the acts. In the result of self-knowledge in humans, increases mental and physical activity, he gains confidence, gets really brave and resourceful.
Thus, the knowledge of how deep the process of acquiring the necessary knowledge about the surrounding reality has its own structure, methods and types. Each type of knowledge corresponds to a different period in the history of social thought and personal choice of an individual.