Septic tanks for private homes how to choose
A septic tank is a standalone device that provides for cleaning of waste and sewage. Apply this design in places where there is no centralized Sewerage system – in cottages, in small villages. Currently, the range of such devices include various models of septic tanks, which differ in material, workmanship, performance, cleanup methods and costs.
Principles of operation septic tank
All represented in the domestic market septic tanks are designed to clean waste before they enter the soil. The work of these devices is ensured by a special design that 2-3 stage purifies the water from the stinking elements and products of human activity. The entire process takes place in the compartments of the septic tank, located either underground or on surface. Modern device models provide three levels of cleaning on the following principle:
- In the first compartment of the septic tank stratify: to the bottom of the heavy waste settles on the surface of the lungs rise, the water occupies an intermediate position between these layers.
- In the second tank clean of impurities is performed by special bacteria that eat sewage.
- The third compartment of a septic tank is a chamber with air. Unlike the first two work in it are aerobic bacteria that process the waste that remained in the acetic acid, carbon dioxide.
Varieties of designs of septic tank sewage for private homes
Recently when sanitation of a private house used a simple cesspool. However, modern farmers and gardeners seek to improve the level of its existence, combining the convenience of city utilities and lives in the lap of nature. Therefore, many owners of private houses are trying to acquire utilities for sewage – septic tank. Depending on the specifics of models, these devices share several characteristics.
On the way to work
Modern homeowners can afford to buy a septic tank, which only need to be installed on the selected place for him and connect to a common sewer system. If you are going to do it, get to know the differences between the main types of these devices:
- Design with soil filtration. If in a private house, the owners live all year round, water is constantly in action, in this case, it is best to go paralelnom the septic tank. This unit not only collects the fluid but also cleans it. The main advantage of the design – a rare clean this model.
If you want to increase the time between emptying the septic tank, this will help the use of special bacteria. This design can have one, two or three special cameras that are connected to each other. In the area where strongly rising ground water, they cannot be installed, because dirt can penetrate into the sources of water through the soil.
- Cumulative. A septic tank is a modernized form of the sump. It is a chamber in which effluent accumulates. When water gets in the drive, the waste divided into several fractions. The design requires that organic pollution is constantly broken down and drains with mechanical impurities precipitate.
Using this system you will be able to ensure that the wastewater will be fully recycled, as they go through repeated cleaning or Baku, or in the soil. This device is able to withstand a lot of pressure in emergency situations. Modern model of the drive is a sealed tank, which collected runoff to a period of purification. This option is used where accumulates a small amount of waste.
- Sewage with a deep biological treatment. The modernized design of this level used several processing systems drain: safeguarding waste mechanical, biological and chemical treatment. How they work these stations? In the first compartment, the water accumulates, and then is divided (light and heavy fraction). The liquid is then cleaned with anaerobic bacteria and aerobic.
Drains are a system of chemical disinfection just before will be reset. The disadvantage is the very high cost of the septic tank, but this cash flow is considered as a good profitable investment. Other related costs supporting the operation of a local septic tank, will not occur.
Modern technology has allowed manufacturers to create a variety of sanitary stationary cleaning systems and design, differing in materials of construction. There are a number of septic tanks, mounted independently using available materials to the homeowner. Consider the well-known homemade and professional system and construction of waste removal:
- From concrete rings. The peculiarities of this type of septic tanks is their durability. Such structures have good resistance to mechanical impacts and aggressive nature. Concrete septic tanks have good capacity. In the cement are added certain substances which can increase the hygroscopicity of the unit and its durability. The only disadvantage of such a septic tank – in a difficult installation.
- With the tyres. Collecting device camera is using the old tires that are stacked on top of each other. The septic tank is the most inexpensive, as the «building material» can get a gift. Not complicated and the installation of such a model. It is suitable for people who have a cottage, but not too necessary amount of money for installation and purchase of a septic tank. This model of a septic tank cannot be called closed, so the tires can cause pollution of the country’s territory.
- Of brick. If you decided to build a brick septic tank, make a pit of the desired dimensions. Laying out the walls of the chambers, apply the principle, as when installing a wall «one brick». The main drawback of such a septic tank – low integrity. Cameras need waterproofing. For this purpose, a special cement mortar. The benefits of brick septic tank – easy materials, easy installation, special equipment is not required.
- Made from stainless metal. One of the popular types of treatment systems are structures made of steel. Their performance is practically no different from concrete. They are resistant to corrosion, durable, not exposed to corrosive substances. But such devices have several disadvantages, including high cost of septic tanks and the use of special equipment during the installation of the equipment.
Septic tanks are distinguished by the form of the designs. Depending on how the compartments are located, a modern sewage system is represented by two varieties:
- Vertical. This type of device provides for a chamber in a barrel that contains a hatch in the top. The installation of a septic tank requires digging a deep pit. However, the installation will not occupy much space. To choose a better septic tank homeowners, areas which do not differ large areas.
- Horizontal. Septic tanks of this type represent a type of structure resembling a cell in which there are multiple hatches. For its installation does not require major depressions, however, the area occupied by the horizontal of the treatment system will be much greater. A variant of the device is recommended for areas with a high level of the location of groundwater and the availability of free space that is not a pity to take for a septic tank.
The location of the cameras
Septic tanks – convenient was a necessity thing. The choice offered by manufacturers allows you to set the plot devices that not only vary in materials, shape, methods of cleaning. So, according to the location of the cameras there are the following types of septic tanks:
- Surface. These devices constitute a hermetic container which is placed or directly on the soil surface or lightly dig in. The principle of operation of such septic tank remains in the compartments of the filtering and purification of waste waters. The sealed design of the surface models do not give an unpleasant smell to leak outside.
- Underground. Devices of this type are more common. The main advantage of an underground septic tank is the lack of cumbersome communication in the area. They represent a construct containing two or three compartments, dug into the ground. The extent of the recess depends on the shape of the septic tank. Underground devices can be performed using any available, inexpensive material.
Selection criteria of a septic tank sewage system for the private sector
The purpose of the septic tank of any type is to provide wastewater treatment before they get into the soil. When choosing a model system for private homes need to consider a number of factors related to the peculiarities of the treatment plant, method of installation, maintenance, and performance requirements of the design. When purchasing a septic tank, please read the important characteristics of the device.
A material septic tank
One of the main points that you need to pay attention to when buying cleaning equipment, is the material used in the production of the design. For the manufacture of the chambers of the septic tank, decided to use the following materials:
- Plastic or fiberglass. The most popular material in the manufacture of a homemade structure, and the factory models. When the device clearing system with their hands using plastic containers of appropriate volume, the so-called Euro-cubes.
- Concrete or reinforced concrete. In this scenario a self-made design of a septic tank, which is used or ready-made rings produced by the plants, or the construction of a monolithic compartment by pouring concrete in place.
- Brick. For such structures will need clinker, which defies the ravages of water.
- The means at hand. If you wish to save many homeowners used to design appropriate containers and materials, old metal drums, tires of large dimensions.
The choice of the model depending on the geological features of the site
Making a decision about selecting a septic tank for a private home or Villa, you need to find out the geological features of the site, which include the nature of the soil, depth to groundwater and the possibility of a seasonal increase their level. If in your area the soil is sandy, then select the type of the septic tank is not limited. On such soils it is allowed to build simple sumps with devices for soil purification.
Suitable drives (brick structure) or the biological treatment plant. If the site has clay soil, then you can choose a septic tank should be given its low capacity to pass water. For such cases, experts recommend the installation of drives or stations of biological treatment. Models of soil cleanup will not work, because the cause waterlogging of the area.
The principle of operation and cleaning
When choosing a septic tank, pay attention to the ways of working of the device. If you are ready for periodic water pumping, can use the storage regardless of the material of manufacture. Such septic tanks installed in small volumes of wastewater. If you do not intend to spend time on this procedure, contact the biological treatment systems in which the entire work take on the bacteria, or to the structure of the soil purification, where the filter effluent meets the soil.
The volume of the tank
The amount of cameras you should choose depending on the amount of water consumption. According to existing external standards, the capacity of the compartment of the structure to exceed the amount of water consumed in three times. In the calculation of this indicator take into account that one person in the day, it takes 200 liters of water. So, for a family of 4 people need a two-chamber septic tank volume is 3.5 cube. The consumption of one m3 of fit and design with one compartment. At the rate of more than 10 cubic meters needs three-compartment model.
Great attention when choosing the cleaning device is given its quality. This figure depends on the material used in construction, the cost of installation. Not less important is the choice of the manufacturer of septic tank. Many unscrupulous companies save on manufacturing equipment and use cheap materials. In this regard, when purchasing products is better to entrust the producers of «named».
Another important criterion when purchasing a septic tank is its cost. It is established by the manufacturer depending on the cost of manufacture model. The price of the device largely determines the quality, durability and future maintenance of the equipment. Cheap models, which cost starts from 20 thousand not always correspond to expectations. If you are interested in high-quality, durable equipment, prepare to spend from 70 to 80 thousand.
An overview of the most popular manufacturers of septic tanks for private homes
The ranking of the most popular manufacturers of treatment facilities includes the following trademarks: Rosegrove, city of EKO Plast, helix, Aqua, TOPAS, BIOXY, Ekopan. All of them are domestic manufacturers that produce reliable equipment to meet modern requirements and environmental standards. The range of these firms includes septic tanks, correspond to the geological conditions of any soil and takes into account individual water consumption.
Where to buy and how much it cost
Buy wastewater treatment system offers a number of specialty stores that sell equipment for garden plots and country houses. Among them are very popular sellers, offering their products online. In the table below you can see the prices on popular models of septic tanks, which are sold in regular stores and at online marketplaces:
|The store name, address||Models of septic tanks||Price in RUB.|
|«Mega Stroy». Moscow region, Lyubertsy, street Initiative, d. 15|| TOPAS 4
|LTD Ecoanalitica Moscow, Nagatinskaya str., 34|| TOPAS 4
UNILOC Astra 3
UNILOC Astra 5
|Center Plastic. Moscow, Perovskaya str., 66|| Breeze 1
|Nordik. St. Petersburg street When Tomchak 28, building 1, office. 408|| TOPAS 5
UNILOC Astra 3
|Septikservice. Saint-Petersburg, street Serpukhov, d. 34|| UNILOC Astra 3
The cost of septic tanks in the popular online stores such:
|The address of the online store||Models of septic tanks||Price in RUB.|
|septik-dachi.ru|| TOPAS 5
UNILOC Astra 3
|the topol-eco.ru|| TOPAS 5
|septiktermit.EN|| Termit-Pro-1.2 f
|uniseptik.EN||UNILOC Astra 5||79700|
|avtonomno.EN|| Astra Cedar
Video: independent septic tank for a country house with his own hands
If the opportunity to purchase a factory is no septic tank, wastewater treatment system do on their own. The required capacity volume that meets your norms of water consumption, sewer pipes, a set of keys, pads, and their own ingenuity. To construct a structure, not necessarily to be a specialist. It is necessary to consider all the details of the device, study the features of the site, slope and soil composition. Will help you with this video:
Valery, 58 years
I have in the country is a regular drive that I laid brick 20 years ago. So far, the tank does not collect water until the level of cleaning. The land is sandy, and the water itself through the walls, seeping into the soil. Pit storage is very large, its volume far exceeds the quantity of water that it enters. Therefore it is not necessary to spend huge money on buying the factory model.
Petrovich, 45 years
We live in the village, the Central Sewerage we have ever had. Cleaning system I assembled myself. Before construction of the structure calculated consumption of water, made drawings of a septic tank with three «pockets» for the type of «soil cleanup». But due to the fact that I am not sealed viewing window and covered it with an iron ring, the whole family was forced to inhale the odors.
Irina Vladislavovna, 38 years
In his country house we installed a septic tank, the Thermite, designed for 3 m3. I chose the model photo on the Internet. It is enough for our family of three, given the fact that we are in the house a total of about three months of the year. I think the model is worth the money. No smell or release dirty water out in this design we have not seen. Everything is neat, convenient, no need to worry about pumping or sewer repair.