How to make a ladder to the second floor
Ladder call a functional element that provides vertical connections between floors. It consists of steps by which to ascend or descend. But the stairs need not only to move between floors – it is also an aesthetic element of the room. When you design this structure, you first need to think about how it will fit into the overall interior design. Let’s see how to make a ladder to the second floor, so it was of high quality, functional and aesthetically appealing. How to make your own hands?
Determine the type of stairs
Stairs to the second floor for private houses can be of different types, which are selected depending on the wishes of the owner, design and size of the premises. Knowledge of types of stairs during home to make the right choice in favor of one or another element. Various materials are used to create access to the second floor, and divide them into several basic types:
- Helical (spiral, circular).
Helical or circular
Spiral staircases are a great tool for expressing the style of the room, filling it with the desired atmosphere. Air wrought iron circular design, which displays on the second floor, fit floor modern style, and massive wooden staircases remind everyone of country style. Design spiral staircases chosen any, limited to only financial means. Such options significantly save space, so they are always popular.
Spiral staircase to the second floor is a perfect choice for a small space with a low ceiling, for example, attics. But for a large space this option will suit perfectly. Fixed spiral staircases radially, forming a screw, and mounting steps can be divided into several types:
- based on the fence;
- with the jamming in a supporting stand;
- drawing on walls at the perimeter;
- relying on the support rack.
Turning the corner
Turning the corner the stairs to the second floor is considered the optimal choice in terms of saving space and hoist safety. They are deployed to the right or left, circular or back by one quarter. The part where the staircase turns, is considered the safest, although the step width is made not more than 20 inches.
The most used design of the turntable ladder with a 90 degree angle. It allows you to zone a spacious room or gracefully enter the stairs in the small gap space. The climb to the second floor of this type is often used in a small project of a country house or a multi-level apartment. As a rule, place it along walls that are at right angles, and turning the construction site is located in the corner. The space under the stairs is often used in closets or pantry.
Design stairway provide direct March on the second floor with steps at a certain angle of inclination. They come in different layouts and can consist of two or more parts. The most comfortable is considered to be one ladder, because when it was created do not have to install a platform between floors. The simplest versions have a rounded shape to save space, so you can see them in small spaces.
Multimid-flight ladders with horizontal platforms optimal for daily reusable for convenient tilting of the March. There are several types of such structures:
- On the stringers. It’s inclined beams with teeth that perform supporting function, which put a degree. The ladder can stay on a single stringer in the center or two on the edges.
- On the bowstrings. That also support beam, only a different type, when steps are inserted into the slots.
- To the Bolza. In this case, installation of stairs made of support beams without steps rely on metal bars, rails. The design looks «air» – it is as if floating in the air.
The name of modular stairs was because the going up of several components (modules) that are inserted into each other, secured by screws, bolts, or special construction studs. The critical parts – the Central stringer. This system is intended for the installation of the lift to the second floor, with a maximum height of 3.5 meters. Low cost and simplicity of installation led to the fact that this kind of stairs are popular all over the world. For the Assembly of modular stairs does not require special skills of installation.
The advantages of combined modular stairs even going to take the time that their construction does not need the project. You only need the manufacturer to give the exact parameters of the room in which you plan to install, and based on them developed will be the best option. Modular stairs have a variety of variations. Based on the size of the premises, it is easy to make design with any angle of rotation, which, through the use of composite materials, harmoniously fit into any interior style, becoming the most successful design solution.
What to do: material for making
The most popular, especially in a wooden house, use the stairs, made of laminated wood or array. Choose different wood: birch back, maple, oak, ash, walnut, pine. In the presence of financial capability, often bought exotic wood red, ebony, and teak. A cheaper option is the stairs to the second floor, made using tree-like materials, for example, beech veneer.
Modern interiors use a steel stair, the supporting structure which may be stainless, but for the steps used perforated or corrugated steel sheet. Often the owners of private homes bought combined staircase to the second floor, for example, steel base with a glass, wooden or stone steps. Interesting option is wood construction with granite or marble inlays.
Hardwood floor stairs with timber
To the owner two storey home is not to puzzle over what material to choose for the creation of stairs to the second floor, many construction companies are advised to pay attention to a simple, aesthetic and inexpensive hardwood installation that will be in harmony with the classic style of home decor. Wood is a unique eco-friendly material, easily processed, and for creating stairs using wooden beam. He has the same height and width, which facilitates the Assembly process.
Wooden beams can be different, but for load-bearing elements, the builders choose the more solid rock below the stairs to the second floor was made firmly. It is solid oak, beech, ash or larch. Reasons why you should make wooden stairs to the second floor:
- Sophisticated look.
- Environmentally friendly.
- Light weight.
- Quick production time.
- The ease of installation.
- A long service life.
Concrete stairs are widely used in the construction of buildings since ancient times. Undeniable advantage should include reliability and durability. However, the installation of concrete monolithic stairs need to be done during the construction of the house, because it is characterized by massive dimensions and great weight. In the private sector created a variety of design and constructive concrete elements.
Monolithic stairs to the second floor are created by the arrangement of formwork at the site of construction, reinforcement and pouring concrete solution. The finished staircase is very rarely used in private construction they are mostly used for apartment buildings. To make high-quality monolithic structure, important initial accuracy of the calculations, so you need before the start of construction to determine to the millimeter height, width and thickness steps, and the number of them.
As for aesthetics, the concrete stairs often faced a tree – it not only creates an atmosphere of comfort and warmth, but also dampens the sound of footsteps. Interesting options veneer parquet Board, cork tile or laminate. Modern cladding materials provide a unique opportunity to do an imitation of expensive materials. A more economical finishing of the concrete spans is painting. Just before that concrete should be cement mortar, as it is prone to abrasion.
Brick on a metal frame
When talking about metal stairs to the second floor, no one is referring to a completely iron structure. In most cases, is meant a metal frame, sheathed with any material. Recently, the owners of private houses drew attention to the facing brick, which today manufacturers offer a wide range of configurations, shades and textures.
Many wonder how much is this design? Brick stairs on the metal frame will come out much cheaper than concrete, because it has more compact dimensions and significantly lower weight. When compared with wooden alternatives, then it will be a little more expensive, but advantages over wood, metal elements because of the stiffness of attachment over time will not squeak, and brick has a large margin of safety. The benefits of combination ladders is attributed by the fact that professionals will be able to fabricate and install it for weeks.
How to calculate stairs
To make stairs for a secure, comfortable and safe for each family member, it is important to consider its compliance with the standards, and for this it is necessary to calculate. For correct calculation you must define three sizes for a start, the floor level, the height of the whole structure on the wall and the length of the stairs on the Pythagorean theorem. In this case, the lengths of the legs will be the size height and length, and the hypotenuse is the length of the March.
Next you need to calculate the number of stages on the March. Builders recommend their height to do no more than 16 cm, and the depth about 30 centimeters, to make it comfortable to walk. After defining the dimensions, it is necessary to divide them the length of the ladder and get the desired number of steps. As for the angle of inclination of the whole structure, it standards must be between 40 to 45 degrees. Allowed to do the stairs and 36 degrees, but it is too steep, especially if on the second floor of the high rise. To go up and down on it will only be holding on to the handrails.
How to work with my hands and railings
The railing is not only protecting the items that ensure safety of movement, but the design and decoration of the staircase. Independently the easiest way to do their wood because all other materials require professional handling. To create them you need the following fencing items:
- The grab bars that is the top bar, which should stay.
- Balusters – posts, attached to the stairs. To make balusters by yourself is better than wood.
- Stand, is a powerful stance that will be at the end of March. To it are attached the handrails.
First determine the distance between balusters, and the height of the railing. Then set the cabinets on top and bottom step. Then laid out the frame on which the balusters are fastened every 10 cm and Then superimposed on top of the railing. At the last stage of the railings should be treated with a router with a special attachment, so that the square section of the rod was round. To finish the creation of handrails and grab bars have beauty treatments: filler, sanding, painting.
How to make a ladder out of the concrete
Pouring concrete steps is carried out in layers, starting at the bottom. Moving on to the next level, you should take a break to let the solution completely dry. With regard to the cement composition, it is executed in the following way: in a container poured the sand and then add cement and gravel. The solution was then mixed by hand until homogeneous, and then small amounts of added water. The consistency of the cement composition on density should respond to the cream.
Photos and diagrams beautiful staircases in a private house
Stairs to the second floor should not only be quality but also style, because it is the link between the two levels. Beautiful design design may be the most important part of the interior and will attract admiring glances just to yourself, so before you choose the type and material of manufacture, consider the style of the future creation. Look at the photo of design of the most beautiful stairs and schemes of their implementation:
Video tutorial: how to make a ladder
How to make a staircase with your own hands? It’s not so difficult once you know the basics of construction and a clear sequence of actions. Need to get parts and know how they attach, and what is intended. But first it is important to correctly calculate the parameters below stairs meet safety standards. Assist in the creation of flights of stairs can a selection of our videos.