Today, the urine test is a standard laboratory test, which diagnose almost any disease. He gives the doctor a lot of useful information on the health status of the patient. A urine test, the transcript of which will indicate the status of the cardiovascular, urogenital and immune systems even healthy people should do at least 1 time per year. Let’s see what are the different types of clinical indicators and their characteristics.
Types of clinical analyses of urine
The most common is the General analysis of urine when the study involves decoding its color, specific gravity, transparency, pH and presence of substances such as:
- the bile pigments;
- ketone body;
- inorganic substances;
- blood cells;
- epithelial cells or cylinders (their remains).
In biochemical level is determined in the urine of substances such as creatine, urea, amino acids, uric acid, enzymes. In the diagnosis of endocrine diseases biochemical analysis to determine the level of certain hormones. There are special urine sample, which will show the transcript of pathological changes in a patient’s body. For example, with the help of samples Rehberg or General judge of the excretory and concentration function of kidneys, and sample Nechiporenko and Kakhovskogo-Addisa will provide accurate information on the elements of the blood that is in the urine.
General study in adults
Due to decryption urinalysis the doctor can promptly detect a problem with the urinary system to appoint adequate treatment. Most of the indicators are determined in labs, but also General, such as transparency or color of urine, an adult can determine if you will know what is normal and what inflammatory process. However, such knowledge is not a guide to self-healing is only an occasion to reflect on the need to visit a doctor. Read more about how to read urinalysis will tell in the video the doctor:
Today, there are precise laboratory equipment (analyzers), which is used for the study of biological liquids. But to urine sediment transcript was the most truthful person it is important to know how to do this procedure:
- Swipe the toilet of genitals.
- Please be a clean jar, which will serve as a receptacle for collection of the urine.
- Before testing, you should not drink alcohol, drink diuretics, eat foods urine color (beets, carrots, oranges).
- For the General analysis we need not only the average urine, and the entire morning portion of the whole.
- Morning urine is collected only on an empty stomach.
- Not collected urine to freeze or overheat.
- That the figures were accurate, you need to deliver the analysis to the laboratory for no longer than 2 hours after collection.
The color and transparency
These indicators relate to the physical properties of urine. The color and transparency of biological secretions in deciphering analysis show the presence of certain diseases. The norm is a whole range of yellow color of the urine from pale straw to rich honey. Selection may be generally transparent and colorless, but it shows their low density, the presence of frequent and copious urination, especially at night. Too rich color in the clinical transcript analysis indicates a strong concentration discharge or high densities.
The color of the urine is of no diagnostic value, but it is necessary to pay attention to when the decoding analysis to check for possible diseases. So, if your urine shade:
- red, signals of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis, leukocyturia, urinary bladder cancer;
- dark brown color indicates problems with the liver or gallbladder;
- red-brown – shows that the patient takes many medications;
- opaque color meat slops signals stones, glomerulonephritis, kidney disease or tuberculosis;
- colourless colouring of the biological fluid suggests the presence of diabetes or diabetes insipidus, renal disease, high content of protein (proteinuria);
- dark yellow hue is characterized by a strong dehydration on the background of diarrhea, vomiting, heart failure;
- black colour can indicate the presence of melanoma or of a disease Marchiafava-Micheli.
- grayish-white color indicates the presence of pus;
- green or blue color indicates the processes of putrefaction in the intestinal Department.
If the urine is dark, cloudy — what does this mean
Dark and cloudy liquid may be a symptom of many disorders. Sometimes it occurs on the background of dehydration, and when the replenishment of the water balance of the color selections comes back to normal. But most of the opacity of the urine in the interpretation of analysis shows the pathology of the kidneys or urinary tract. These include:
- Kidney stones.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- Retrograde ejaculation.
- The bladder stones.
- The uric acid crystals.
- Goodpasture’s Syndrome.
The relative density (specific gravity) of the urine is an important point in the transcript analysis. He characterizes the filtering function of the kidneys. The proportion depends on the number of secreted human biological fluids and substances dissolved in it. Relative density of urine in humans every day varies widely, which depends on the quality of food consumed, volume of fluid you drink.
Norm specific weight of an adult is 1012-1025, newborn – 1018. Increased or decreased the relative density of urine in the transcript analysis, additional studies are needed to determine the cause. Low specific gravity can be observed when taking diuretics, after copious drinking or in the presence of nephritis, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. High density is possible renal failure, diabetes or other diseases.
The presence of protein in the urine
The reasons for the appearance in the urine of human protein set. This may indicate different diseases of the kidney, CNS, infectious endocarditis, congestive heart failure, intestinal obstruction. Protein often appears when dehydration or fever, due to severe stress or after exposure. Protein in deciphering urine find people after overexertion of muscles, significant physical exertion or after a diet with high protein content.
Normal concentrations of protein believe <0,033 g/l. higher values characterize various inflammatory processes in the body. The fact is that in healthy people through the membrane of the glomeruli large part of the protein does not pass, because they are of a great size. And if the tubular epithelium of the kidneys or large flows of low molecular weight proteins, then is inflammation, infection or tumor.
Rate the content of organic substances
When decrypting urinalysis important indicator is the concentration of the following organic substances:
- Bilirubin. Removed by the liver, but if it is detected in the urine, this indicates a malfunction of the liver or diseases that destroy red blood cells (anemia, malaria, blood diseases).
- Of urobilinogen. During the day in urine, this bile pigment may be not more than 6 mg. If the rate is exceeded, this indicates a malfunction of the liver, destruction of red blood cells, intoxication or diseases of the intestine.
- Glucose. The rate of the presence of 0.8 mmol/L. If decoding rate is exceeded, then the probable causes are: a predominance of sugary foods, diabetes, pregnancy, hormonal imbalance.
- Hemoglobin. If no health problems, it in the urine is present. The presence of hemoglobin may be due to blood diseases, poisoning, myocardial infarction.
What is the difference between indicators in pregnant women
The norm indicators in deciphering urine of pregnant women is a bit different from the norm of other people. The fact is that during pregnancy the urinary system is experiencing a heavy load, because in this period the kidneys and bladder by the growing fetus, impeding their performance. The rate of indicators in the transcript analysis:
- Urine color ranges from rich yellow to straw.
- There is no mucus. Healthy urine is clear and transparent liquid.
- The presence of oxalates (the salts of different structures) does not exceed 20-40 mg per day.
- The weight must range 1010-1030 g/l.
- Leukocytes do not exceed 5 units.
- The presence of protein not more than 0.075 g/L.
- Should not be in the urine harmful bacteria, glucose, ketone bodies.
Features of the urinalysis results
All pathological processes in the urinary tract and kidneys affect the physico-chemical properties of urine. There are various options for its studies, which are divided into quantitative and qualitative. First determine the urinary excretion of cylinders, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and the second prescribed for diagnosis of kidney diseases, to monitor treatment or to monitor the dynamics of the disease.
According To Nechyporenko
Prescribed for diagnosis of kidney disease, if the overall analysis showed a high level of white blood cells, red blood cells or the presence in urine of cylinders. Breakdown of analysis according to Nechyporenko:
- the norm of leukocytes to 2000, if above normal are possible: cystitis, pyelonephritis, kidney stones;
- rate of red blood cells to 1000, if the above – pielotsistit, renal failure, tumours, urolithiasis;
- rate of up to 20 cylinders, if the above is possible: nephrosis, swelling of the kidneys, kidney disease.
The essence of the collection of urine by zimnitskiy – to determine the osmoregulation of renal function. Prescribe analysis with suspected kidney failure or inflammation of the kidneys. Collect urine during the day every three hours. Normal levels in General in deciphering analysis:
- the kidneys remove 80% of alcohol consumed during the day of fluid (at the time of delivery of the analysis should indicate how much fluid was drunk by the patient);
- after administration of the liquid occurs a sharp increase in the urinary tract;
- the daily diuresis exceeds the night.
- the difference between low and high relative density is not less than 0, 007;
- relative density of urine ranges from 1,004 to 1,032.
When collecting urine for Sulkowice is determined by the level of calcium in biological fluids. Analysis is used in Pediatrics for proper matching of quantitative doses of vitamin D for a child or as a preliminary test of excretion of calcium. Need to collect morning urine of a child who is taken on an empty stomach. Norm analysis Sulkowice are the indicators of «+» or «++». A negative figure indicates a shortage of vitamin D or excess is excreted by the body of calcium.