Turkish saddle in the brain
The structure of the human brain is very complex, every Department performs an important function. The development of pathologies in this vital organ entails a sharp deterioration of health. One such disease – a syndrome of Sella.
What is an empty Turkish saddle in the brain
This is the name of the disease is due to its shape, it looks like a depression in the sphenoid bone with a back like a saddle. This is the area under the hypothalamus, on both sides of it are the optic nerves. Through this place are the carotid artery to the base of the box and here is the venous sinus. It is this blood pool, which is the main source of blood to both hemispheres of the brain. The pituitary gland, spreads on the walls of the cavity of the Turkish saddle, if there is protrusion of the brain through the violation of one of the functions:
Causes of syndrome of Sella
Turkish saddle in the brain can be primary and secondary. The first variant of the disease occurs suddenly without a clear and apparent reason. Secondary empty saddle is a result of disease of the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus or the result of their treatment. The cause of the disease in most cases is underdeveloped diaphragm of the Turkish saddle. Under the influence of internal factors the meninges may extend into its cavity.
In such circumstances, formed the vertical dimension of the pituitary gland, is pinning his to the bottom and the walls of the saddle. Doctors have identified several factors that may cause and greatly increase the risk of developing the disease, for example:
- Increased intracranial pressure. In pulmonary or heart failure, tumors, traumatic brain injuries, hypertension increases the risk of Turkish saddle in the brain.
- Hyperplasia of the pituitary gland and legs. This pathology is manifested, as a rule, long-term administration of oral contraceptives. In girls, this condition can be caused by frequent pregnancies.
- Endocrine restructuring triggers transient hyperplasia of the pituitary gland. It occurs at puberty, during pregnancy or when it is discontinued.
- Brain tumors their necrosis. Frequent operations that are performed on the same or adjacent sites, leading to increased risk of syndrome of Sella.
In the diagnosis and establishing the underlying causes necessarily specialists will determine what type of syndrome is primary or secondary. This is important because they develop for different reasons, for example, the primary syndrome of Sella. In this case, underdevelopment, weakening of the walls of this area from below. This condition develops rapidly under the influence of the following factors:
- in pulmonary or heart failure increases the blood, intracranial pressure, which can cause osteoporosis of Turkish saddle;
- the increase in size of the pituitary gland, which is coordinating all endocrine processes of the body;
- the appearance of cavities with liquid, which leads to the death of a pituitary tumor.
Secondary syndrome Turcica looks a bit different. In this case, the development of the disease due to the presence of abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary nature. These include all diseases that are localized in areas of the brain where the pituitary gland. Another factor in the development of secondary type can be a neurosurgical intervention carried out in the areas of the brain where the Turkish saddle.
Symptoms formed empty Sella
Experts note that symptoms that may be accompanied by empty Turkish saddle, mixed, depend on type and degree of dysfunction of the secretion of hormones, pituitary gland. Usually the disease is accompanied by such symptoms:
- regular headaches;
- double vision;
- blurred mist before the eyes;
- frequent shortness of breath;
- the increase in body temperature;
- decreased performance, physical endurance;
- pain in the thoracic spine;
- high blood pressure;
- dryness of the skin;
- brittle nails.
Depending on the nature of symptomatic manifestations a person may apply to a particular specialist. The following features become the reason for going to the ophthalmologist:
- macular degeneration – loss of vision field;
- retrobulbar pain, pain on movement of the eyeballs, often accompanied by lacrimation, headache;
- photopsia – black spots before eyes;
- blurred vision;
- chemosis – swelling of conjunctiva.
To neurological symptoms that indicate the development of empty Sella in the brain, include the following manifestations:
- constant low-grade fever;
- the attacks of tachycardia, shortness of breath, chills, fainting;
- irritability, emotional depression, causeless fear;
- regular non-localized pain of the head;
- spastic pain occurs suddenly, spasms of extremities;
- changes in blood pressure.
Disruptions of the endocrine system
Manifestations of the development of the empty Sella with the endocrine system can be those characteristics that have become a consequence of an overabundance of pituitary hormones:
- disruptions of the menstrual cycles (in women);
- enlarged thyroid gland;
- sexual dysfunction;
- acromegaly – enlargement of body parts;
- diabetes insipidus;
- metabolic problem.
Diagnosis of the disease
As a rule, people turn to specialized doctor according to the manifested symptoms. If problems with your vision, you should go to the ophthalmologist for hormonal disruption in the plan to an endocrinologist. Any of them can order additional tests that can identify the root cause of the problems. To identify the brain empty Turkish saddle helps magnetic resonance imaging. In some cases, the expert can suspect this disease, in the study of venous blood, where a noticeable change in the provisions of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland.
X-ray of the Turkish saddle is extremely rare, because it is not 100% clear shot of where the doctor can confidently diagnose. Typically, plain radiography of the skull, which was appointed for the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury or sinusitis may reveal pathology space Turcica. In this case, the doctor to confirm the diagnosis assigns an MRI.
MRI of Sella with contrast
Currently the most accurate way to make an accurate diagnosis if you suspect a Turkish saddle of the brain, magnetic resonance imaging. Images obtained by this method of diagnosis with a high quality, precision, allowing to study everything, even the smallest details. In complex cases, can be used contrast substance is administered intravenously before the procedure. It is absolutely harmless to the human body and is the contrast, which «highlights» the place of pathology.
Treatment of the syndrome of an empty Turkish saddle
The purpose of the therapy entirely depends on the underlying cause, which began the development of syndrome of Sella. Treated, as a rule, underlying disease, and also carry out the suppression of symptoms. To share treatment options can be into two main groups – drugs and surgery. Therapy of folk remedies for this disease are not carried out.
When the brain is Turkish saddle when examining about other diseases, as a rule, treatment is not assigned. In these cases, the pathology does not manifest itself in any way, does not cause discomfort. You only need the regular medical check-up to prevent worsening of the condition. In other cases, are guided by the following principles:
- When hormonal failure, when there is a shortage of production of specific hormones prescribed substitution therapy. She is in charge of the missing elements from outside.
- Asthenic-vegetative problems are solved with the help of symptomatic treatment. Your doctor may prescribe sedatives, painkillers or drugs to reduce blood pressure.
Surgery because of leakage of cerebrospinal fluid when thinning of the bottom of the Turkish saddle in the nasal cavity. The same method of treatment is required when the SAG of the optic junction in the diaphragm and compression of the optic nerves, which causes a disturbance of the visual fields. After the procedure the patient should undergo a course of radiation and hormone replacement therapy. There are two methods of surgical operation of the Turkish saddle in the brain:
- Through the frontal bone. This type is used when there is a tumor of large size, that gives use the removal through the nose. This method is more traumatic.
- Through the nose. A more common option is surgery. In the nasal septum is a slit, through which are all other manipulations.