That shows a smear on flora in women

Women’s health is easy to break, because it is a very fragile substance. Every woman needs every six months to visit a gynecologist to determine the presence of pathologies, and not to risk the health. The first thing doctors do when the inspection is taking gynecological smear, designed to identify the presence of pathogens.

Indicators of the smear on flora

The girl on reception the doctor

After a swab taken from the vagina, it is sent to a testing laboratory. The results voiced by the patient’s gynecologist. To avoid erroneous conclusions, it is advisable to go to be examined by the same specialist or in one Agency, because different laboratories use different methods of studying and painting material. What does a smear on the flora?

Norma leukocytes in women

Starts decoding analysis smear flora in women with determination of the leukocyte count. Are particles that protect the body from infection by preventing the microorganisms in the genitals. After taking a smear when decrypting you need to consider the presence of colds, pregnancy and the day of the menstrual cycle. The normal concentration of leukocytes in the field of view should contain 10-15 units of red blood cells and 2 units. After menstruation, the white count may be higher – up to 25 units.

In pregnant women the rate of white blood cells is allowed up to 30 units. If the patient is in the presence of a viral or bacterial infection, the white cells on microscopic examination can be upgraded. Therefore, doctors always recommend PAP for vaginal cleanness after an illness. If we exclude all the States that affect the level of white blood cells, but white cells are elevated, it indicates the presence of inflammation.

Squamous epithelium smear

The cells of the mucous lining the uterine cervix and vagina, called the squamous epithelium. In the cervical canal is columnar epithelium. That shows a smear on flora in women, if skin cells are absent or very much? When a woman is healthy, the examination of sample rate is from 3 to 15 units. If squamous epithelium is insufficient, or he is absent, this may indicate the high content of male hormones.

In this case, the gynecologist may suggest the patient to undergo hormone therapy. This abnormality can be atrophy of epithelial cells. Increased concentration indicates the presence of infection or acute inflammation. When the study shows modified squamous epithelium, so the woman developed dysplasia, which in certain circumstances can become a cause of uterine cervical tumors (malignant).

What is the meaning of the key cells

The analysis will identify key cells in the smear when a woman has bacterial vaginosis. The walls of the vagina are attached in this case grammarically or pleomorphic gram-negative rods – Gardnerella. Pathology can seriously undermine the immune system, so fraught with consequences. In bacterial vaginosis flora of the vagina contains numerous pathogenic microorganisms that brings the owner a lot of discomfort.

Not always the key cells reveal a violation of the bacterial balance. Once identified you need to identify the specific causative agents of pathology. Sometimes the cells are found in cancer or erosive pathology of the mucous membrane, therefore after identifying and treatment should be regular monitoring of their content (at least twice a year).

The technician took a swab taken from a woman

Mixed flora in smear in women

If the smear showed the presence of mixed flora, this indicates an imbalance between nebulisator and pathogenic microorganisms. This means that a particular material contains Lactobacillus, squamous epithelium, leukocytes and other microorganisms. When lactic bacteria, 95%, and opportunistic rods of 5% is considered the norm, since a small number of staphylococci can’t hurt. That smear shows mixed flora in women with other indicators:

  1. First degree. Leukocytes in normal epithelial cells and a moderate number of lactic acid bacteria, but there is mucus. That means no inflammation, healthy immunity, normal flora, no pathogens.
  2. Second degree. Urogenital smear showed that the lactobacilli present along with the yeast fungi and cocci. Normal white blood count, but there is a mucus moderate. This figure is also considered the norm, but there is a risk of inflammatory diseases.
  3. Third degree. Mixed flora with a predominance of pathogenic microorganisms. The presence of leukocytes, mucus and epithelium than the normal figures – the woman in the genital organs occur inflammation.
  4. Fourth degree. Smear on the microflora showed a large amount of epithelium and mucus. Several times exceeded the rate of leukocytes, lactobacilli were found, and presented to the microflora pathogenic bacteria. This shows that the disease is running. Assigned to treat inflammation, then there is a repeated smear on flora.

Technicians examine smears on flora

The Fungus Candida

Yeast-like fungi Candida is a unicellular micro-organisms of round or oval shape, which form blastospores (kidney cells), strands of elongated cells (pseudomycelia) and some disputes with double shell (chlamydospores). They are often in the vagina. The spores of fungi Candida may also occur in perfectly healthy women. The manifestation of mycelium indicates active infectious process caused by yeast infection or candidiasis. The first symptoms of the disease were itching in the intimate area, vaginal dryness, cheesy discharge with an unpleasant odor.

Coccal flora in women

In the vaginal content of the coccal flora is present constantly. In some cases, it demands attention when on the background of inflammation of microorganisms it is a large number. Cocci resemble grains of rice, so in ancient Greek the name corresponds to the word «grain». The number of these bacteria increases in vaginal secretions when terminated or decreased production of ovarian hormones – estrogen. Coca are antagonists of lactobacilli. In identifying coccobacillary flora should think about the health of the vagina.

Mucus in the smear in women

If all indicators are normal, the mucus in the smear does not matter. The picture changes if bacterioscopy shows that the presence of other bacteria. Mucus – production glands of the vagina and the cervical canal is alkaline. It performs important functions, among which the most important is the ability to suppress the development of pathogenic bacteria. Depending on the menstrual cycle, the thickness and the composition of mucus changes. If the highlighted content has a bright pink color, it shows endocervicitis (inflammation of the cervical canal).

Study analysis

The degree of purity of the vagina

The concept reflects the state of the vaginal flora. To determine the degree of purity, the doctor evaluates the ratio of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Normal in the vagina are useful Bacillus, which are called sticks of Doderlein. They produce lactic acid, which protects women’s flora from the possibility of growth of pathogenic microorganisms. When Doderlein Bacillus are killed, develops the inflammatory process. Purity shows how many useful bacillary flora and Corynebacterium is now in the vagina.

Breakdown of smear results

Interpreting the results of the smear on flora

So that shows a smear on the flora? Doctors for short cut letters in the table of indicators. To understand how good or bad analysis, we must understand what lies behind this notation:

  • U, V, C – space, from which doctors take a smear on flora: U-uretra is the urethra, V-vagina – vagina C-the cervix – cervical canal;
  • EP stands for the meaning of the epithelium;
  • L – leukocytes;
  • Trich –Trichomonas pathogen;
  • Gn – the causative agent of gonorrhea.

What diseases PAP smear detects

Preparing a smear on flora from 1 to 2 working days. If there is a need to clarify the results, the doctor may additionally execute cultural studies. What may indicate decoding of a smear on flora in women and identification of key cells in the uterus:

  • polyps;
  • erosion of the mucous membrane;
  • chlamydia;
  • gonorrhea;
  • cancerous degeneration of the epithelium;
  • mycoplasmosis;
  • trichomoniasis.

Video: how to decipher the analysis on the flora

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