Signs and symptoms of scarlet fever in children
Scarlet fever is an acute infectious disease, which mostly affects children. Usually, the disease is combined with a sore throat and is manifested by a punctate rash on the skin and a severe defeat of the tonsils. The causative agent of scarlet fever belongs to the group of beta-Gemological streptococci, and the main manifestations of the disease are associated not by the influence of the Streptococcus and with the toxin, which is released this pathogenic bacterium. As a result of entering into the bloodstream this substance, there is acute intoxication, fever and abundant rash with pinpoint scarlet fever.
Previously, scarlet fever was considered a deadly disease, but today it can be successfully treated through medications and some antibiotics. Most importantly, time to recognize the symptoms of scarlet fever and immediately proceed to the treatment of the disease.
What is scarlet fever in children?
Such a disease as scarlet fever or formerly known as scarlet fever is a bacterial infectious in nature. Enters the body the pathogen, usually through the mucosa of the oral or nasal cavity, causing inflammation (pharyngitis, lymphadenitis, tonsillitis and etc.). Rarely, streptococcal infection enters through skin lesions, wounds and cuts, and such cases arise more often in adults. Streptococcus, in favorable conditions, produces exotoxin, which negatively affects the entire body, including the main vital organs: kidneys, heart, nervous system mu. In addition, these toxins cause severe allergic reaction in the body, which leads to damage of soft tissues and mucous membranes.
The most troubling question, especially from parents of young children, how is scarlet fever. The infection spreads quite easily through airborne droplets. In most cases, the infection is long-term communication with native streptococcal respiratory infection. Rarely, infection occurs by contact-household (through household items, toys, etc.). There are many ways, how is scarlet fever in children, especially if children attend a d/s or school where you can easily encounter an infection carrier, which might be perfectly healthy in appearance.
The risk of infection increases significantly if:
- lowered immunity;
- the body has lack of vitamins;
- low hemoglobin (iron deficiency anemia).
The most dangerous period to others the first three days of illness from the media. The incubation period of scarlet fever is 1 to 14 days. A child is considered to be the vector of infection even the day before the first signs of infection, and in the next 2-3 weeks of the disease.
The main preventive measure to scarlet fever is early detection of infections and its separation from the others. In preschools and blocks for primary classes at school we have a lockdown. How many days lasts the quarantine for scarlet fever? In institutions where there were cases quarantine should last no less than 2-3 weeks. Children, previously without a history of scarlet fever, are not permitted for classes at least 17 days, at this time should be disinfected premises.
As scarlet fever is manifested?
Disease begins its development very acute, the symptoms of scarlet fever felt from the first day, the person rapidly deteriorating condition, he becomes lethargic, apathetic, there is a fever and headache, t reaches high values, up to 40oC. At the beginning of development, there is often nausea and vomiting.
One specific first sign of scarlet fever is a rash, which is a large part of the body, especially on the face, neck, knees and elbows, armpits, groin and other skin folds. The rash is a spot of bright red spots, about the size of a few mm, which is spreading rapidly, and after a few hours can cover the whole body. Skin affected areas of inflamed, reddened and swollen, feels very dry and hard. On the cheeks the patient can see the bright blush, also striking lips that become unusually saturated color. Pale, as a rule, remains nosogubnyj a triangle. Language when scarlet fever under the influence of toxins, too much changes color. It turns bright crimson, or even blue, it strongly act papillae. In addition, in the mouth of the patient can be seen the inflamed mucosa, raids, and pustules on the palate, in the throat and tonsils. Such a condition the doctors called among themselves «the burning mouth».
High t and intense rash lasts from 2 to 5 days, after which the lesions gradually disappear, leaving a peeling and pale spots. Further, the skin continues to peel off the procedure two weeks throughout the treatment until complete recovery, this is especially noticeable and unpleasant on the hands and feet, the skin from these areas is removed whole layers.
In spite of such obvious clinical picture of the disease, like scarlet fever, can identify only highly skilled. Because the symptoms can be very similar to sore throat, rubella, measles and even with the usual allergic symptoms or dermatitis.
So, if you separate all of the above, it is possible to allocate following basic signs of scarlet fever in children:
- the sharp rise in t to extremely high values.
- sore throat, difficulty swallowing;
- small point of an intense red rash over the body, sometimes items may merge, forming red inflamed and the affected area;
- crimson tongue with bumps on the child;
- inflamed the entire cavity of the mouth ( mucosa, palate, tonsils);
- white patches and pustules on the throat, palate, tongue, and tonsils;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- sometimes nausea with vomiting;
- chills, fever or seizures.
All the symptoms of scarlet fever in children usually disappear in 2-3 weeks, if the disease was not complicated by other concomitant pathological processes.
How dangerous scarlet fever.
Scarlet fever is a dangerous disease that leaves its negative impact on health, however, as with any infectious disease. The main danger lies in the fact that scarlet fever often leaves some complications and provoke the development of other diseases. For example, severe inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, after which can develop sinusitis or sinusitis, and ear canals, until the development of severe otitis media.
The mild form of the disease, the child may move to scarlet fever as a typical cold, and with the help of medication to get rid of unpleasant symptoms.
If scarlet fever overtook the child in the severe form, a small body and greatly exhausting, long lasting high fever, the ever-present fever, disturbances occur in many internal organs, often the kidneys and the cardiovascular system, which often leads to the development of acute or chronic diseases.
Many people wonder how many times ill with scarlet fever and the possible re-manifestations. Doctors believe that after this the disease persists lifelong immunity to this pathogen, that is scarlet fever a person can recover only 1 time in my life. However, in medical practice are known cases of re-infection, and this usually happens, if in the first case was carried out very active and aggressive medical therapy, with the result that the immune system was not yet developed to this pathogenic organism.
Another frequently asked questions, or an adult to become infected with scarlet fever from the child, because parents are treating their child. Adults who have not previously transferred the disease and also have a weakened immune system and susceptibility to frequent infections, may be infected with scarlet fever. However, the symptoms in the adult has several erased the character, the disease manifests itself in the form of a moderately inflamed throat and tonsils, short of intoxication, and a small rash.
Unfortunately, the vaccine for scarlet fever is not, therefore, comply with all preventive measures to strengthen your immunity and to avoid contact with an infected person. If by prevention you late, at the first signs you need to consult a doctor and undergo a full course of treatment.