Hip dysplasia in newborns
The appearance of the baby born doctors assess his health condition and skin Apgar. Congenital diseases after the detailed diagnostics are subject to immediate treatment, but positive dynamics requires time and competent medical care. Hip dysplasia is one of the most common pathologies in newborns.
What is hip dysplasia in children
The disease is accompanied by the underdevelopment of the hip joint bones, which are formed as a result of the incorrect location in the acetabulum of femoral head structure. For dysplasia is characterized by such features that allow the podiatrist to make the correct diagnosis, determine appropriate treatment, and to objectively predict clinical outcome.
- The joint capsule stretches pathologically, a non-standard view of the ultrasound picture (x-ray).
- Acetabulum becomes flat elliptical shape.
- When dysplasia is underdevelopment of the ligaments.
- Nucleus of ossification has not been formed.
- It is not excluded violations of the contours of the femoral head, but also borders meet the standards of this indicator.
Hip dysplasia often progresses from infant girls, while the figure for boys, according to statistics, 4 times lower. Often the pathology is unilateral, whereas bilateral involvement of the joints – extremely rare in General medical practice. In both cases, when timely and competent approach hip dysplasia baby can be cured.
Causes dysplasia in newborns
The doctors isolated a number of pathogenic factors that trigger the development of hip dysplasia in newborns. Those are dangerous conditions that prevail in utero are formed or when planning pregnancy. Progressing almost immediately after the appearance of the baby born at the first examination of the child specialist. Causes of dysplasia following:
- birth injuries;
- breech or breech presentation of the fetus in the womb;
- harmful working conditions of the pregnant woman;
- environmental and social factors;
- genetic predisposition;
- hormonal imbalance during pregnancy;
- severe toxemia;
- unauthorized reception of certain drugs during gestation of the fetus;
- infection during pregnancy;
- early or late delivery;
- vitamin deficiency in pregnancy;
- endocrine diseases of the mother;
- pre risk of miscarriage, abnormal birth.
The symptoms of the dysplasia in infants
Illness in children is diagnosed almost immediately after birth, and the doctors believe the risk of worsening of dysplasia even when bearing fruit. To determine the immaturity of the hip joint in a child can already at the first examination, whereas for young parents visual symptoms. In any case, the signs of dysplasia the following:
- Asymmetry of folds on the legs. If you build both limbs of the infant, mismatch of skin folds during progressive dysplasia is evident.
- The click sound. This symptom occurs when securing the legs from the «frogs» in opposite directions.
- Limited abduction of the limbs. In children this symptom of dysplasia is particularly noticeable if to breed the limbs of a newborn in different directions from the same position «frog».
- Different length limbs. Such a dangerous symptom in newborns characterizes congenital dislocation of the hip the last degree.
Diagnosis of hip dislocation
To identify hip dysplasia in newborns, doctors can still in the hospital after a visual inspection a little patient. To treat the affected hip, they can not, therefore, after discharge is strongly recommended wide swaddling and an immediate visit to the podiatrist to undergo an ultrasound. This method of clinical examination determines the degree and type of dysplasia, possible causes and remedial measures.
Ultrasound of the hip joints in infants is allowed only in the first days of life. The child reaches the age of 3 months podiatrists suggest a more accurate method of diagnosis – x-ray for visualization of the nuclei of ossification and angles. Joint ultrasonography or MRI are additional actions for questionable clinical pictures in infants.
Treatment of dysplasia in children
If, after birth, diagnosed with hip dysplasia in infants, requires a comprehensive approach to the problem, timely response to parents. To determine the optimal list and order of treatment and preventive measures can only be the attending physician on the basis of the transcripts passed on the testimony of ultrasound. Most often it is:
- charge, daily gymnastics of the newborn;
- the rate of paraffin;
- the electrophoresis in an amount of 10-12 procedures;
- course remedial massage every 3 months the year before the child;
- physical therapy of the newborn;
- casual sock special orthopedic devices (spacers, pillow frejka, tires Volkov and Vilna, wide swaddling, Pavlik’s stirrups the right size).
This at home method of successful treatment of the dysplasia are relevant when subluxation and prevelige, is a kind of «alternative» everyday wear stirrups Pavlik for newborns. Every young mother should know how to perform this procedure to not run an overwhelming pathology of the hip joint. You need to prepare flannel diaper and a diaper a size larger. The sequence of actions is the following:
- The diaper needs to be folded several times, so the result is a dense spacer of width 20 cm.
- Put a newborn baby on the changing table, bend the lower limb to the position of «frog».
- To lay a diaper placed between the legs of the child so that it is not slid, and in the perineum was divided into two halves.
- Top wear a diaper or a reusable diaper, get a good fix on Velcro (fastener).
- Dress the baby, and his legs will be in a stable position at shoulder width.
Such action on the correction of the hip joint of a newborn should be done daily, complementing the charging and recommended by orthopedic procedures. Duration of treatment is individual, but usually takes 1-3 months. According to the results the doctor is re-ultrasound to assess the angles and formed the nucleus of ossification of the child patient.
Exercises for hip joints
Dysplasia treatment must include special exercises, which you can fulfill at home and in the water. This is uncomplicated for mom exercise, which not only accelerate the formation of immature hips, but strengthens the muscular system of the newborn. It is important to do exercise in the morning and evening, spending on this activity for 15-20 minutes of free time per session. The sequence of actions is the following:
- Put your baby on the changing table to the back, to strip naked (to remove even the diapers), perform a stroking from shoulders to hands, from belly to toe along the limbs.
- To turn the newborn on his stomach, to choose the position of «frog». Then massage the outside of the legs, gently rubbing, stroking limbs.
- To return a newborn on your back to perform the same manipulation with the external side of the tiny legs.
- Allowed to lightly pinch the child’s buttocks, to a way to stimulate the systemic circulation.
- In the same position as the bend – unbend the limbs to the stomach, repeating this movement 12 times during one session.
- The rotation of the knees clockwise – the last exercise in dysplasia, but to do it need 10-15 times without stopping.
- In the evening the same training complex can be performed in water, using slow and smooth movements.
Massage with dysplasia
Remedial course – an integral part of effective treatment of dysplasia. Massage baby to accomplish in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months to strengthen the muscle mass, to cure dysplasia with physiological characteristics. The effects of the treatments are noticeable after each session, very pleased with the caring mother. In all types of hip dysplasia massage parents can perform at home. Doctors advise to trust the health of a newborn nurse for carrying out 10-15 procedures depending on the pathological process.