Fecal occult blood
Every adult knows that if there is blood in the stool, is a symptom of the disease that could pose a threat to life. The detection of this pathology should immediately consult a doctor. There are many methods of diagnosis that detect hidden bleeding, one of which is a stool sample.
Why take the fecal occult blood test
Some diseases of the digestive system occur in the early stages asymptomatic. However, particles of blood in the stool can be detected early in the development of pathology through research. Their sizes are very small, therefore sometimes it is impossible to see even under a microscope. At the slightest suspicion on the occurrence of certain diseases, doctors send the patient to pass a stool for occult blood. This study was conducted to detect the bleeding of the following digestive organs:
- the liver;
How to prepare for testing
That was an accurate analysis of the occult blood in the stool, it is important for the exam to prepare. First of all, on the eve of the taking of the material not to do enemas, bowel movements should be natural. Women during menstruation should refrain from analysis. Prior to the procedure, for three or four days should not do any x-ray examination. Before a sample is taken it is forbidden to brush your teeth, because if the smallest blood particles will get into the digestive tract from the damaged gum, the results will be distorted.
Diet before testing stool for occult blood
Before the study the patient is assigned to a three-day diet. The gist of it – adding to the daily diet of potatoes, butter, boiled eggs, dairy products, cereals. For collecting fecal occult blood test went successful, you need to completely abandon these products:
- the liver;
- white beans;
- green vegetables;
- sweet pepper;
Refusal of medication
It is necessary to refuse not only from certain foods before you pass a stool for occult blood, but also from the use of drugs, which is composed of iron. Is barium sulfate and bismuth. They are able to paint the stool in unnecessary for the analysis of color. Also you can’t take any laxatives, affect peristalsis and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).
How to collect a stool sample
Fecal occult blood involves the collection of material, but any particular recommendations does not need. Is set in a sterile container. The collection of feces is necessary to make in the morning and the lab or diagnostic center to deliver not later than 3 hours after draining. Properly trained to analyze, depends on the adequacy of final results. How to take the fecal occult blood test:
- in the morning urinate, to feces did not contain impurities of urine;
- carefully swipe genital hygiene;
- collect stool using bedpans;
- with a spatula transfer the material into a clean container.
How much of the stool for analysis
When preparing for a stool test for occult blood performed, to collect the material easy. This laboratory studies need a very small amount of feces. In pharmacies you can buy special plastic containers for this purpose. Fill this jar should be no more than a third (10-12 ml). If it is not possible to deliver the material to the lab immediately, then you can save it for a day in the fridge or cool place with temperature from +6 °C and below.
A large-scale task of performing studies on blood in relation to hidden bleeding from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. For verification use a special chemical reagent that reacts to a minimal level of hemoglobin, including and in animal meat, eaten the day before. Heavy bleeding visible to the naked eye, because the color of the discharge changes radically. Red blood characterizes the pathology of the colon or rectum. Black, tar-like consistency of the black color shows the problem in the esophagus, stomach or small intestine.
In smaller-scale irregularities of gastrointestinal tract mucous membrane color and consistency of the collected material does not change. The presence of red blood cells is established through microscopic examination. For the diagnosis of bleeding used screening tests to help identify asymptomatic disease. Most clinics use a sensitive guaiac test. Her reaction to the detection of pathologies are due to properties of hemoglobin of all the oxidation processes are accelerated.
During a special filtered paper is applied to the stool, then placing guaiac reagent, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid. If the hemoglobin concentration less than 2 mg per 1 mg of stool, the test result is negative. When the reaction for occult blood in the stool is positive then it can cause even small size of metastatic and primary tumors, therefore, the analysis of sensitivity to blood widely used for the detection of colon cancer.
Transcript of analysis results
If, after examination, the reaction of the material collected for occult blood is negative, it means that the condition of the GASTROINTESTINAL tract is normal. When you define a positive result, it means that the patient present chronic diseases, accompanied by damage to the mucous membranes. This test result may show colitis, colon polyp, ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer or stomach. The result of hemorrhoidal bleeding, of intensive straining effort at defecation, worm infestation or ingress of blood from the mouth, can be false positive results.
Causes of occult blood in the stool
When Kale discovered particles of blood, then this may be a consequence of the following diseases:
- A stomach ulcer. Bleeding are caused by peptic ulcer or gastritis. Additionally, the patient may experience symptoms such as pain in the upper abdomen, heartburn, vomiting.
- Inflammation of the intestines. Pathology includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (nonspecific). Blood particles can be dark or bright red. Additionally, the patient may experience weight loss, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
- Hemorrhoids. This disease affects the area of the rectum, anus. Hemorrhoidal blood is bright red color. Symptoms: itching and burning of the anus, pain during bowel movements.
- Cancer. The blood is caused by tumor of the colon at an early stage. Bleeding range from black (a tumor in the stomach) to bright red (pathology of the rectum, lower intestine). Additional symptoms: sudden weight loss, weakness, fatigue, change in eating habits.