Demyelinating disease of the brain

An abnormal condition of an organism that destroys white matter (myelin) of the brain is called a demyelinating process. This problem is very dangerous. The disease affects the whole organism as it relates to autoimmune diseases. In recent years, an increasing number of cases of detection of demyelinating diseases.

Demyelinating diseases of the nervous system

The girl has a headache

Diseases of the nervous system (ICD-10 international classification), which are combined in a similar way the destruction of myelin, due to several causes, from allergic to viral agents. Characterized by this group of pathologies that demyelinating diseases of the Central nervous system often suffer from able-bodied men and women who subsequently come to disability. Typically, demyelination of the brain leads to a persistent decline in intelligence. The most common are demyelinating diseases of the brain:

  • multiple sclerosis;
  • multifocal leukoencephalopathy;
  • acute encephalomyelitis.

Multiple sclerosis

What is multiple sclerosis, in the last time often will young people from 15 to 40 years. A feature of this disease is the simultaneous failure of several parts of CNS, which leads to various symptoms in patients. Disease alternating with periods of remission and exacerbation. Basis of multiple sclerosis is the emergence of foci of destruction of myelin in the spinal cord and brain, called plaques. Their dimensions are small, but sometimes formed of a large compound. Often this abnormality causes the disease Marburg or atherosclerosis.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Disease refers to a viral infection of the nervous system that develops in immunodeficient state of the patient. The pathology progresses rapidly and within a year could lead the patient to death. Often the cause of multifocal leukoencephalopathy is reactivated the virus that the body gets in childhood and located in the kidneys or tissues in a latent state. Disease develops in the case when a person is at higher risk: AIDS, organ transplantation, lymphoma, leukemia, syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and other diseases.

Acute encephalomyelitis

Encephalomyelitis is a disease in which there are a variety of inflammatory processes in the spinal cord and brain. The pathology is characterized by lesions scattered throughout the nervous tissue. The name itself (encephalitis and myelitis) indicates the severity of the disease and the patient’s prognosis depends on the activity of the process, adequacy and timeliness of treatment, initial state of the organism. The outcome of acute encephalomyelitis may be as recovery and disability or even death.

Signs of multiple sclerosis

Disease on brain MRI

Chronic multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the brain, in which the body regards its own tissues as foreign. The immune system with antibodies begins to fight with them. Demyelinating process occurs, during which the nerve fibers are exposed, and the patient identifies the initial symptoms: the occurrence of urinary retention, disorders of gait or vision.

Later there is a partial restoration of the myelin sheath, and the first signs of the disease disappear. The patient thinks that were held independently and not seek medical help. This is the insidiousness of multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating diseases of the Central nervous system. Typically, when a patient goes to the doctor autoimmune process it has been 4-5 years.

The most common signs of the initial stages of multiple sclerosis are as follows:

  • numbness of limbs;
  • atrophy of the muscles of the hands;
  • imbalance;
  • double vision and blurred vision.
  • violation of coordination of movements;
  • ambiguity of speech;
  • cognitive impairment;
  • sharply there is a paralysis of the limbs.

The causes of brain disease

Any demyelinating disease of the Central nervous system can occur for different reasons. The most famous among them:

  1. Malfunctions of metabolism. This is typical of diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease.
  2. Paraneoplastic processes, which are the first manifestation of a malignant tumor.
  3. Toxicity of chemical components: narcotic, psychotropic, alcohol, paint and other.
  4. Immune response to the proteins in the composition of myelin.

Numerous studies in recent years confirm that demyelinating diseases of the brain can develop due to the negative impact of environment, bad heredity, poor diet, prolonged stress or bacterial infection. An important role in the development of pathology play an infectious disease: herpes, measles, rubella, Epstein-Barr.

Treatment of demyelinating diseases

Neural connections

To cure degenerative and demyelinating pathology of the CNS is difficult today. Even with the development of modern medicine, medications final and quickly relieve the patient from the disease does not exist. Therapy aims to prevent the formation of long-lasting neurological effects. Before determining an accurate diagnosis, the doctor sends the patient for differential diagnosis, in which, when similar symptoms it is necessary to distinguish one demyelinating disease of the brain from the other.

Cure for multiple sclerosis

To treat multiple sclerosis it is impossible. In the clinic, where there is a Department of neurology, the patient was originally sent to do an MRI, a spinal tap, to pass laboratory tests. The specific test that pinpoints the diagnosis, no. Many other diseases have similar symptoms (lupus erythematosus, stroke), therefore, the final diagnosis and treatment method can determine only an experienced specialist. In each individual case medicines are prescribed based on the severity of attacks.

Medicines are available depending on the stage of multiple sclerosis. So, with the aggravation of the latter, the cerebrospinal form of the disease, are appointed by injections and tablets of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisone. They prevent functional disability, reduce inflammation, reduce immune attack. When the interval treatment between the attacks prescribers, contributing to normal functioning of the immune system: Immunoglobulins, Methotrexate, Cyclosporine.

Symptomatic treatment

Under symptomatic treatment is understood by all treatments that can alleviate symptoms or subsequent States of the patient, but do not eliminate causes of illness. In demyelinating pathologies of the CNS are carried out such rehabilitation activities like physiotherapy, methods of folk treatment, diet changes, acupuncture, laser therapy or nearline.

Non-drug treatment covers the energy-saving physical exercise (using long rest periods, priority setting, intensive classes in the morning). Physiotherapy is based on the exercise of the new options of walk, developing balance, and if necessary, the selection of prostheses. Symptomatic therapy improves the quality of life of patient with disease of the brain.

Video: MRI diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

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