Autoimmune diseases: symptoms
It is known that autoimmune processes in the body are accompanied by different symptoms. It is important to know that some of these diseases are often not bright clinic. However, as their development in patients showing signs of immune disorders, more about which you can learn from the following material.
What is autoimmune system
Modern medicine has no clear understanding of the causes of pathologies related to a hyperactivity of the protective cells of the body. Associated autoimmune disease with many endogenous and exogenous factors. It is known that specialized cells of the lymphatic system, or T cells, normally designed to track and destroy abnormal cells, but sometimes, for unknown reasons, T-killers begin to show aggression against the body’s own tissues.
In medicine, similarly functioning immune system is conventionally defined as autoimmune. The latter is not of special cells and organs belonging to it, and this is due to the relative nature of this definition. The term «autoimmune system» only reflects reformatting «programs» T-lymphocytes, uncontrolled separation and aggression. As a result of such changes, the body is virtually defenseless against attacks of pathogenic microorganisms.
The main symptoms of autoimmune disease
Clinical manifestations of this disease may be the most diverse in nature. To highlight some of the common symptoms for the entire spectrum of autoimmune diseases makes no sense. Medical practice shows that each type of pathology manifested by characteristic polymorphic features. Such «vague» symptoms are often baffled even the most experienced medical diagnosticians. Currently, to identify aggressive clones of killer cells are special laboratory tests.
Actually, this fact makes the topic of autoimmune diseases: symptoms relevant to this day. Timely diagnosis plays an important role in the further formation of the prognosis of treatment. Depending on the localization of the problem and detection in the blood of certain markers is accepted to distinguish several types of pathological process. Some of them constitute a separate category of faults accompanied by systemic disturbances in the body.
Signs of autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system
Pathological changes of the thyroid gland, which arise on the background of the infection, stress, are the main illnesses in this group. Resulting from these diseases hormonal imbalance leads to many negative States type of hyperthyroidism, toxic goiter. Patients with endocrine disorders (mostly women) often complain of constant sleepiness, thirst, as in diabetes. Often they have found serious problems with the digestive system. Autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system can occur and other symptoms:
- muscle weakness, decrease in attention, memory impairment (hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, nodules in the thyroid gland);
- excessive sweating, weight loss (diffuse toxic goiter, hyperthyroidism);
- the weight gain, sensitivity to cold (Hashimoto’s disease, or insufficient production of hormones by the thyroid gland);
- bulging eyes, trembling hands, scanty menstrual bleeding (hyperthyroidism, diffuse toxic goiter).
Autoimmune liver disease
This group of pathological processes is accompanied by multiple associated pathologies. When liver disease is often identified nodes in the thyroid gland and inflammation in the intestinal tract. Major diseases of this kind is considered to be the hepatitis and biliary cirrhosis. Latest dangerous because it is asymptomatic. In this regard, it is important to remember the markers of autoimmune diseases, which made possible early diagnosis of this disease. As for hepatitis, it is possible to name the following symptoms:
- the yellowness of the skin;
Autoimmune diseases of the skin
The most common disease of this group of diseases is psoriasis. The disease is characterized by the rapid growth of new skin cells, which accumulate and form a rounded inflammatory foci. The patient with this diagnosis has severe itching and pain. Often on the background of the skin lesions, patients develop psoriatic arthritis. Other symptoms of education autotel DNA of the skin may be:
- the formation of bubbles on the surface of the dermis (pemphigus);
- change of skin color (vitiligo, isolated cutaneous vasculitis);
- rash, redness of the skin (eczema).
Autoimmune disease of connective tissue and joints
Systemic violations of such a plan can be distributed to different levels. This is due to the fact that connective tissue is present in almost all organs . Regarding articular pathologies, we can say that most of them are related to rheumatic diseases. To date to detect the latest it is possible by detection in blood of specific markers of the disease. Primary diagnosis of autoimmune processes is based on identifying the patient:
- ulnar deviation, presence of subcutaneous rheumatoid nodes (rheumatoid arthritis);
- arthritis of multiple major joints ( rheumatic fever);
- back pain, rigidity of the spine (ankylosing spondylitis).
Signs of autoimmune blood diseases
The main diseases in this group of pathological processes is considered to be the hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. First, the disease is characterized by lesions of red blood cells, in which a person suffers from iron deficiency anemia. In the second form of autoimmune process attack the exposed platelets, due to the mass deaths of which the patient found to pathology of blood coagulation. Neutropenia neutrophils are destroyed in type of cytotoxic effects.
Nervous autoimmune diseases
Demyelinating processes can develop independently or be symptoms of other problems in the body. In such autoimmune diseases, T-killers direct aggression against the nerve cells. The symptoms of demyelination manifestuac with dizziness, coordination disorders. So, a vivid sign of multiple sclerosis is optic neuritis. In severe psevdoparalitichesky infants may experience symptoms of respiratory failure that occur on a background of involvement in the process of the diaphragm.
Autoimmune disease muscle
Myositis is commonly described as the main pathology of this group of diseases. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of skeletal muscles. The myositis is often accompanied by systemic autoimmune processes such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. It is important to note that the aggressive response of lymphocytes can be triggered by trauma or toxic exposure. Most people who suffer from autoimmune diseases muscle complains of persistent pain syndromes in various parts of the spine.