Analysis of Helicobacter
If a person has complaints of discomfort and pain in the abdomen, it is assigned diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. It is necessary to prevent or detect diseases of the stomach and duodenum. Do you know something about this analysis? Below is the detailed preparation, delivery and breakdown of the results of this study.
What is Helicobacter
If you translate the term «Helicobacter», we get «the bacterium has a spiral shape and inhabiting the gatekeeper.» The last term is called the division of the stomach passing into the duodenum. The Helicobacter organism is anaerobic, because the air, he immediately dies. Lose it the body is called Helicobacter. If time does not get rid of this infection, it may lead to gastritis, duodenal ulcer or stomach, and even cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is often transmitted from mother to child or other family members.
How to be tested for Helicobacter pylori
Research on H. pylori is performed in several ways, which have their own Assembly technique. For reliability of diagnosis appoint at least 2 of them. These studies:
- A blood sample to determine the concentration of antibodies to Helicobacter. Samples taken plasma. It is checked for the presence of antibodies which are the immune system’s response to the «outsider». The sensitivity of the analysis depends on the concentration of immunoglobulins. Marking them the following: lgG, lgA and lgM. The price for each antibody reaches 200-300 g.
- The urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori. This study uses the ability of bacteria to produce a special enzyme urease. In the stomach it breaks down the urea, resulting in 2 components: carbon dioxide and ammonia. The cost ranges from 700 to 200 UAH. depending on the test method.
- The analysis of fecal antigens of Helicobacter. Is sensitive polymerase chain reaction, i.e. PCR. The study is to detect in the capture DNA or RNA of bacteria. Instead of cal can take urine, blood, saliva, sputum, and pregnancy amniotic fluid. The price reaches 600-800 g.
- Taking the area of the gastric mucosa on biopsy during gastroscopy. This technique is considered a rapid test that can detect Helicobacter. Cost about 400 rubles.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blood
This study aims to determine the specific reactions of the blood content of immunoglobulins, i.e. antibodies. They are produced in response to infection, are then contacted by the causative agent and completely neutralized him. Blood is taken fasting in the morning. If circumstances do not allow, you come to the lab and a day, then before that not eating for 4 hours. If Vienna after a sample is taken is bruised, the patient is recommend applying it dry heat for sucking blood.
Breath test for Helicobacter pylori is carried out in 3 ways. Each of them give the following:
- Studies using urea labelled with radioactive isotopes. The patient is asked to breathe into a special tube. So we take 2 samples of the air, and then the person drinks a solution of urea labeled with radioactive carbon. After 15 minutes, the procedure exhalation into the phone again.
- The urea breath test 13C. It is considered the standard in gastroenterology. There is only 2 air samples, and the patient exhales special disposable bags that are sealed. The first fence material is fasting and the second after receiving the solution of urea labeled with the nonradioactive isotope 13C.
- Helik-test. The advantage of this analysis is security for pregnant women and young children. It seems like the previous tests, only after the first test, the patient drinks a solution of urea.
Helicobacter pylori in the stool
This type of analysis on Helicobacter is more convenient for patients, because it is not even necessary personal attendance. In addition, it is performed without any injury of the body. For this reason, this analysis shows the elderly, children or people with serious illnesses. The fence stool is at home after 3 days restrictions:
- dietary fiber;
- inorganic salts;
- drugs that increase peristalsis of the intestine.
How to prepare for testing
For the reliability of any analysis it is necessary to properly prepare. To increase the effectiveness of any study is to give antibiotics a week before delivery. Among the General rules are the following:
- The night before, you can’t eat oily and spicy food.
- At least per day should limit Smoking, alcohol, strong drinks such as tea and coffee.
- About 2 weeks to stop taking medicines that increase the activity of the intestine.
Preparing for a breathing test
As mentioned above, urease test for Helicobacter pylori is performed in 3 different ways. What unites them is that the first sample is taken on an empty stomach, then after drinking a special solution. The conditions that must be followed in the preparation of this analysis, the following:
- 3 days before the study to stop drinking alcoholic beverages.
- On the eve of test dinner low-fat and non-spicy food.
- Stop taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- During the day before the test do not eat, which increases flatulence. Among such products are apples, legumes, cabbage, black bread.
- The day before the examination to exclude the factors contributing to the increase in saliva. This includes Smoking and chewing gum.
How to donate blood for Helicobacter
Special training a blood test for Helicobacter pylori does not require. Among the General recommendations are the following:
- The night before should not eat oily or spicy food.
- An hour before the intended procedure of drawing blood can’t smoke.
- If the analysis for H. pylori is performed in the daytime, only after 4 hours since the last meal.
What not before passing stool
To place the necessary material in a sterile container, then immediately go to the lab for his surrender. Guidelines for the preparation of the analysis of the following:
- 3 days prior to sampling to stop taking medication that increases peristalsis.
- To limit the use of candles for 3 days before analysis.
- The fence material should be carried out after natural defecation.
Decoding blood test for Helicobacter pylori
When the discovery of the body the bacteria take blood, then it is determined by the concentration of immunoglobulins. Antibodies belong to several groups: M, G, A. how to decipher blood test, based on the division result, positive and negative. The first is determined when the level of antibodies higher than normal, and the second at a lower setting or complete absence of immunoglobulins.
|Basic information about the antibody||A positive result||A negative result|
|lgA||Occur rare, indicate a severe inflammation of the stomach.||The presence of H. pylori infection.||Infection at an early stage, the recovery period or absence of infection with negative results for other antibodies.|
|lgM||Is an indicator of infection at an early stage.||Indicates H. pylori infection, which begins to develop in the body.||If antibodies are absent, and infections in humans either.|
|lgG||Detected by infections, which lasts for 3-4 weeks, or after treatment from her.||Indicates the presence of H. pylori infection or its gradual disappearance. In the first variant there is a risk of developing ulcers or stomach cancer.||Indicates the absence of bacteria, but the risk of peptic ulcer disease remains. Still indicates a recent infection due to this bacterium.|
The results of the breath test
The respiratory analysis on Helicobacter is qualitative and quantitative. If urease activity of the bacteria is detected, the result is positive, otherwise negative. Quantity reflects the value that indicates the percentage of stable isotope in the exhaled air. Of this number, we can talk about the defeat of the gastric mucosa H. pylori. With the help of a device called a mass spectrometer, and determined the exact percentage that reflects the degree of infection:
- 1-3,4% – light;
- 3,5-6,4% – average;
- 6,5-9,4% – heavy;
- from 9.5% – very heavy.