Drip irrigation with their hands
An important element in the cultivation of plants and the lawn care is watering. In the summer especially need regular irrigation, which can be a problem. In this case, there is a way – drip irrigation. You know how and what it can do? The instructions below will help in this matter.
How to make drip irrigation
A pipe system includes several components which are interconnected. It is important to plan a territory where everything will be located. To build at home design for watering shrubs, trees, and other plants in the garden, you need to go through several stages:
- Make a diagram of drip irrigation, where to reflect the main elements and the location of the beds.
- To calculate the volume of the water tank, which should be enough for irrigation of a certain area.
- On the basis of the scheme and calculation of the quantity of consumable materials for installation of drip irrigation with their hands.
Diagram of drip irrigation with their hands
A large number of elements of the system can confuse anyone, so it is important to gradually collect them into a single structure, which needs a scheme of drip irrigation. It includes:
- a holding tank, from where it will receive water;
- tap to adjust flow of water;
- main plastic pipe;
- tubes which are attached to the previous item;
- fittings, tees or start connectors.
To each element of the irrigation was in its place, you need a separate sheet to create a drawing plan of the garden beds with dimensions and elevations, where there are seedlings. Next, you need to mark on the diagram drop tube extending from the main pipe. Important: if the site is tilted, then the latter is better positioned in the higher part. Then you need to arrange the places of attachment of the tubes to the trunk, so you can count the number of tees or start connectors, which provide a branching system.
The calculation of the watering system
An important condition is the flow to the plants of moisture in the required amount, because they are adversely affected as the lack and excess of water. For this and need to do the calculation:
- the consumption of water needed for the garden;
- number of tubes according to the scheme area;
- the number of units of drip irrigation;
- filter station;
- the number of materials.
The maximum amount of water that you need for daily irrigation, calculated by the formula Q = 60 m3/ha * S/T, where:
- 60 – the water demand for 1 ha;
- Q – the amount of water, which should be equal to the bandwidth of the filter plant, m3/h;
- S – area, which need to be watered, ha;
- T – the daily work of the system, about 16-20 h
Full length of the drip tubes is calculated according to the formula Lt = Sk * 10 000/L, where:
- Lt is the length of the required number of tubes, m;
- Sk – the area of irrigation per 1 tube that is 1 plant, m2;
- L – distance between 2 lines or 2 plants, adopted by the scheme.
The next step is the determination of size 1 garden block – S b = (Qt * L * x)/10 * q, where:
- S b – size of irrigation unit, м2м2;
- Qt – carrying capacity of pipes depends on the diameter, m3/h;
- L is the distance between the parallel drip tubes, m;
- x – the distance between the emitters, that is, holes for water outlet, each tube, m;
- q – rate of release of water with 1 emitter, l/h.
To calculate the number of such blocks, you need total square footage divided by the value obtained above and round in a big way. The next step we determine the water consumption per 1 ha – W = (10 * q)/L*x, m3/h All values from the formula described above. This value is necessary to calculate the water consumption of the irrigation block 1 – Wi = W * b S, m3/h. the Last thing you need is to determine the diameter of the main pipeline. The resulting number is rounded to the standard values of the diameters, but in a big way D = 1,13 * root.kV.(Wi/3600 * V) where:
- 1,13 – coefficient of transition from the area of the living section to the diameter of the pipe;
- Wi – water flow in irrigation block 1, m3/h;
- V, the received velocity value of the flow of water, from 0.9 to 1.9 m/sec.
Accessories for irrigation
After calculation, we can already start preparing the necessary materials. To mount a drip with your own hands, you need:
- Source of water supply, which is mains water, a well or container, such as a plastic barrel. The latter need to raise approximately 1.5 m above the ground for the implementation of the course.
- Main distribution pipe, the diameter of which is determined by calculation, but often accepted size 32 mm. and Fit a garden hose, just hard and opaque.
- Lter, thanks to which you do not have a few years to change all elements of the system. There are mesh, disk and vortex device. When the device watering their hands more often used the first option.
- The drip tape in the form of plastic tubes with diameter from 16 mm to 20 mm, which are installed in special emitters or drippers. As the last fit and health, but more often they are used for houseplants.
- The fittings connecting the main pipe with branches, with valves to regulate the flow of water or without them.
- Fittings – tees or start connectors, plugs, sleeves, couplings.
- Sensors, injectors, controllers, pump and valves, which requires an automatic watering system.
Automatic watering on the dacha with his hands
The cottage we frequented only in the summer to watch over the future harvest, but in this case I would like to reduce the frequency of trips, because the circumstances may be different. Not to worry you will help the automation of irrigation. It can be underground, rainy or drip. The last option is to give used as often, and can even be assembled out of plastic bottles.
The advantage of drip or capillary irrigation is to supply water directly to the roots of the plants and lack of water on the leaves that protects them from burns. In addition, the surrounding soil remains dry, so the plot is not zavolakivaya, and on-site irrigation is not formed earthen cover. This gives the seedlings to breathe, and saves you from frequent loosening of the soil. Here are a few benefits any Autonomous watering system:
- water saving;
- intense uptake by plants fertilizers;
- more active growth of the root system;
- the reduction of labor costs for the care of plants;
- uniform watering at any time.
How to connect
Automation of the process provides a controller – a device with which you can set the cyclic program watering by day of week and time of day. You need to install on pipeline which delivers fluid to the system, but only after the filter. In addition, you will need solenoid valves depending on the controller timer will open and close the water. Often arranged such automatic watering in the greenhouse for greenhouse, this technology is especially convenient.
Watering system for greenhouses
On the plot can be not only open beds, greenhouses, where watering is necessary. The system can be built with your own hands and purchase ready-made kits. As the latest popular sets – drip irrigation in a greenhouse «Drops,» automatic watering «Akvadiv» drip irrigation «Rosinka». These systems provide the plants the necessary amount of moisture in 2 ways – by using separate droppers supplied to each seedling, or one-piece belts.
Dripper for irrigation
This irrigation system involves the supply of water directly to the root of each plant. Its basic element is a dropper adjustable (2-20 l/h) or uncontrolled water flow. Also, these devices can be non-compensatory or compensatory, which are characterized by stable performance, which does not depend on line pressure. Another important detail is the «spiders» – these devices bring water to several points. In this irrigation system includes a stand, start connectors, fittings, tees, valves and other connecting equipment.
Tape drip irrigation
More simplified principle of operation is the irrigation system using drip tape, each of which has the desired number of holes. One end of the tube is connected to the main pipeline, and the other fastened the lid. When applying water, it begins to ooze out of the holes. The advantage of this system is simplicity. The ribbon replaces the entire set of tubes and fittings which are needed for the image with droppers.