The analysis of the «Crimean Sonnets» of Adam Mickiewicz «At the tomb of the Potocki» and «Storm»
Breathe freely now, I looked up to the stars
Eyes gold all stars
Sent me greetings earth space
I alone: the range was a solitude
For creativity Adam Mickiewicz characteristically philosophical understanding of existence through your own experiences – your thin inner world, which incorporates elements of the surrounding world. Miscavige – thinker, he finds his ideas in the form that corresponds to their level. Incorruptible simplicity, behind which lies a deep meaning, tells about the true skill of the poet. And it’s a skill found expression especially in his Sonata art.
«Sonatnogo flourishing of art has always testified to the activation of the formation of national culture at this point in history, its maturity, the crystallization of the art experience in the gold alloy of tradition and innovation» [2 – p.19].
«And Mickiewicz’s Sonnets. one of the most significant for the further development of Russian poetry of the cyclic forms, one of the first forms of a cycle of sonnets that appeared in Russian poetry, not counting the experiments of A. A. Delvig». *
«Cyclic form or a book of sonnets was traditional for Western European poetry, especially in the Renaissance» [8 – c. 102]. This is a very remarkable phenomenon is observed throughout the history of the sonnet: from the era of Dante to modern times. «And for each of the literature was revealing the creation of the national version of the sonnet cycle as an artistic model» [8 – c. 102].
As for the sonnets, they are the epitome of understated poetic form. It with ease, elegance, bright images, built on the contradictions, the dialectics anenih canons of thesis – antithesis – synthesis. It is therefore not surprising that the sonnets played in the work of Mickiewicz crucial role. This is well echoed Pushkin’s genius:
Off the coast of Tauris remote
The singer of Lithuania to the size of it is limited
Your dreams instantly attracted [4 – p. 288].
«Homesickness runs through the sonnets of the cycle. Pushkin in his masterpiece «severe Dant did not despise the sonnet» was named «singer of Lithuania» on a par with the greatest masters of this poetic form) accurately identified the dominant in the «Crimean sonnets» mood, Saying Mickiewicz in the Crimea: «Your Lithuania remembered» [6 – c. 12]. Yearning for his native land had a beneficial influence on the poet from the position of creative: he created a real monument dedicated to the legendary Taurus.
In the «Crimean sonnets» to the reader was presented a real seen firsthand the Crimea, the real «East» miniature [6 – c. 12]. And this is very significant for the culture of the period, especially for such a romance as Miscavige. «Fascination with the East was typical of the romanticism and stressed the multiplicity of civilizations and lifestyles, looking for a poetic contrast of reality and outside of Europe» [6 – c. 11 – 12 ].
Returning directly to the personality of Mickiewicz, note that his «Crimean sonnets became an organic part of common process and influenced the development of the Russian sonnet, especially at the end of 20-ies – 30-ies. they led to the emergence of some original sonnets by A. S. Pushkin, I. V. Kozlova, A. V. Podolynsky, K. K. Pavlova and other poets. It is possible that the poem of Mikhail Lermontov, «I live with the memory of faded dreams…» could be created under the influence of petrarchism Mickiewicz» [8 – c. 108].
It is impossible to ignore the very remarkable fact, which allows ponder the philosophical significance of the «Crimean sonnets». It is noteworthy that in the process of cyclization of the sonnets Mickiewicz plays a big role in unity of the themes of the drama of human destiny, which is achieved through the centripetal composition of the lyrical cycle» [CIT. for 8 – 104]. **
We offer our readers an analysis of two sonnets And Mickiewicz. «Potocki’s grave» and «Storm», from the series «Crimean Sonnets», which were very popular from the time of their publications, especially in Russia. This is evident in particular from the letter of A. Mickiewicz, A. Oduncu. «You want me to sent you the Russian translations of my poems. Had to send a large package. In almost all anthologies (and here goes many) appear to my sonnets, they already have a few translations… I’ve seen Russian sonnets in the spirit of my» [3 – p.397].
At the tomb of the Potocki
Among unearthly gardens, native land spring,
Withered rose… moments of the past years,
After leaving the butterfly you, gentle light
Managed to bury in your soul with confusion.
Where the North of Poland, where the constellations warmed
Your way. Where did the universe glow? –
Il view your fire in a violent boyfriend
Was able to burn in the heavens before the death of the bright trail.
I, too, polka, here find my abode,
In anguish, but let the unknown healer
I throw a handful of earth and something whisper.
Then I will be resurrected by a mysterious prophet.
In dreams about you sing me the anthem sing
And weep over the grave of the lonely [1 – p. 70]
In the first quatrain of the sonnet Potocki, Mickiewicz compares with the rose, which is worthy to live in Paradise. But spoke bitterly about her death. Thesis Katyusha – the death of the addressee, to whom he dedicates these lines.
Verse is characterized by its completeness. And, nevertheless, is the epithet that leaves some kind of Ghost, which is ahead of the development of the topic: «tender light» that managed to bury in her heart «moments of the past». Here, David Miscavige, as if materializes Time, giving him the opportunity to continue to age out of this world there, beyond the spheres.
In the second quatrain the poet was communicating with her spirit, he sees her Ghost in a distant constellation that stretches
over the country, and believes in his star, which gives warmth to his beloved Poland. Tender feelings embodied in the question: «where did the universe glow?», — change the passionate exclamation: «that look… it could burn out in the sky… a bright trace».
This is evidence that the poet believes in an afterlife wilted roses. He says about immortality. You should pay attention to the characteristic configuration in the two quatrains: images-parallelisms – «gentle light», «universal glow». First in the soul, the second in heaven, in deep Space. Soul, to soar to the heavens after the death of its owner, found his immortality and the light that comes from the memory of his Majesty Time.
You can endlessly wonder at the ability of the poet so delicately to Express their nostalgic feelings.
«Appeal to the stars of the big romance, which is in exile, his passionate appeal to heaven, uniting our homeland and those places where the poet achieves not only the peaks of the poetic understanding of the world, but the scale of the space attitude» [10 – c. 80].
Synthesis touches the depths of your soul. The poet does not need a lot: to be remembered by anyone. All roads lead to pier one, which has no name, and whose whereabouts are not known to us. The memory of Time bothering him.
He does not want to accept the idea that may be forgotten by all. The decision confirms brilliantly the pathos of all his experiences: tears of a lonely traveler on his grave (the future) – the crown of all his wishes.
By the way this sonnet is one interesting story. In 1953, «Literaturuli Newspaper» published an article by T. Chkhenkeli to the 155th anniversary of the birth of Mickiewicz. The poet, referring to «the Journey to Tauris» Muravyov-Apostol, results in the possibility that in the Eastern chapel with a dome in the Crimea rests not Potocka, which was inspired by Mickiewicz in this wonderful work, and an unknown Georgian beauty. ***
In the sonnet «the Storm» is particularly strongly expressed the synthesis of the collision of two worlds, embodied in the two quatrains.
«Through the idea of «Crimean sonnets» — the longing for the homeland expressed in this work do not so openly, but it is the figure of the traveler, the pilgrim, that unites the entire cycle, it seems even more tragic and lonely than in others» [5 – c. 84]. This sonnet is an allegory. With the ship we can compare our lives and with the water element – a fate that plays with the owners for a short time, as he pleases, and, in the end, it absorbs in its unknown depth.
Snapped the sails, the wheel is broken… tornado sea
Instilled in the sailors fear as pumps ominous groans;
Hopes were dashed, and death knell
The bloody disk of the sun is retiring.
Water power surge wave
Looks a hell of a spirit, from the depths vneseny,
To ship the jaws of darkness furious,
Like the warrior who seeks battle.
Half-dead, who lies in agony pining,
Desperate friends stretches out the arms;
Who pray the death prayer scare.
And only one sat in deep alienation,
Thought: happy is he who has completed his way,
Meeting with faith last moments [1 – p. 70 – 71].
In the first quatrain is given to thesis: describes a situation which attests to the doom of the ship and sailing on it. This image, created by the epithets: «broken sails», «broken wheel», enhanced by the natural metamorphosis: the disappearing luminary from the horizon, heralding the death of all aboard the vessel. Miscavige has created a psychological effect. Natural pattern in harmony with the state of the sailors and bring them to a desperate climax. Verse, of course, completed. But it requires a splash of emotions, because the high energy of the syllable, generating the whole set of feelings characteristic of this theses. The sonnet, in addition to its dialectical structure, there is semantic space, built on the principle of the theme – development – climax – ending.
The theme of impending doom almost destroyed the ship and its inhabitants continues in the second quatrain. And if the first quatrain, descriptive, and events take place in a relatively moderate pace, in the author they develop with lightning speed. A «hellish spirit» is ready to swallow its prey unknown to us the vagaries of nature, and, perhaps, the Will of Higher Forces, which must take a tribute to us being thoughtless.
Factor opposition, though subtly presented, is palpable. If the author of the quatrain is obviously a riot of the water element, which produces a warrior of darkness for the final bout with his victims, in the first – it is concentrated in the subtext: an undercurrent of meaning, or rather, intention of the poet. This is a genuine element: she’s overwhelmed, struggling with her. And it is no less strong than the first. Two violent elements merge with each other in the third, the poetic, which has already overwhelmed the poet himself.
An action that causes a reaction, one of the important points of the law of unity and struggle of opposites. In fact, the element s of the senses are not able to tame the elements of the sea, condemning their souls to death. But doomed if the soul of the dying? – the eternal question facing man. Everyone wants to believe that he can find salvation – faith in a brighter future – even beyond his comprehension. And here it is the perfect synthesis of the collision of these worlds – the elements – a clear example of harmony of the two antinomies. No matter what physical condition would not be doomed, he does not believe that is doomed. He fights to the last breath, but not for this life, which inevitably leaves his flesh, and the Ghost that can stand before him a new Eden.
Summary convinces the reader not only what is easy to die for those who believe, but the fact that every rule should be an exception. The last line of the sonnet is his castle, «the last moments» is a key word that corresponds to the concept of this work.
The sonnet «the Storm» can be associatively compared with the sonnet Alexandra Fedorova «On the waves», whose story touches the depths of the soul, painting lyrical sophistication, despite the raging in its fury of the storm. Like the contrast between the description of a little «singing birds» in the background raging at azharovsky demonic elements, allows to obtain dantou formula for the reconciliation of Earth and Heaven. The ocean here is called the binding link between them: on the one hand, as belonging to the Earth, on the other hand, incorporating the Sky as a reflection. But, more importantly, ahead of: the removal of contradictions impresses to tears.
It’s about the impending death Hey didn’t know.
Around was the ocean. Yeah a sky without borders.
Here did not fly none of the bold birds [7 – p. 500].
Returning to the works of Mickiewicz, it should be noted the quality of the sonnet «the Storm». After all, it seems that the ship is about to disappear with the appearance of the Universe, that his death is only the moment… And it is, but it lasts throughout the sonnet, i.e., Forever.
Loneliness is a favorite theme in the works of Mickiewicz. It is symbolic and runs through many of his works, especially the two already presented us a sonnet. There is something similar in the images of the two heroes of these sonnets. Lonely mourning the death of the poet traveler (existing in it, the poet dreams), as does the poet, weeping over the tomb of the Potocki; and sitting alone on the deck of the ship, who, having lost faith in true salvation, ghostly jealous of their brothers in misfortune.
In «the Crimean sonnets by Adam Mickiewicz apparent «Poetic Cosmos of the sonnet – system – dynamic and at the same time, rigidly conservative, complicated by a long history, accumulated traditions, incessant memory of the genre» [9 – p.54].
* The contemporaries of A. Delvig was not aware of the cyclical factor in the ego of the sonnets, as the poet himself has not combined them in cycles, and published separately in various publications. As the cycle they were written only in the album S. D. Ponomareva. See: RO, Institute of Russian literature 9668/ LVIII B8. 18 – 20.
** The principle of lyrical cycle researched and selected L. E. Lyapina. See more in: Lyapina L. E. Lyric cycle in Russian poetry 1840 – 1860s the NINETEENTH century. Abstract. Diss. Cand. filol. Sciences. – L., 1977.
*** «Literaturuli newspaper», that’s 25.12.1953 (Georgians. lang.)
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2. Gerasimov K. S. «the Dialectic of the canons of the sonnet,» in proc. Mat. scientific. Conf. The Harmony Of Opposites. Aspects of the theory and history of the sonnet. Tbilisi, TSU, 1985.
3. Mitskevich A. Letter to A. E. Oduncu of March 22, 1828 in Coll. CIT. in 5 vols., vol. 5, M., 1954.
4. Pushkin A. S. collected works. CIT. in 10 vols., vol. 2, M., «fiction» 1955.
5. Sarishvili V. K. «the poem of Adam Mickiewicz «the Tempest» in Russian translation» // Scientific session dedicated to the 200th anniversary since the birth of Adam Mickiewicz. Tbilisi, TSU Publishing house, 1998.
6. Stakheev. «The poetry of Adam Mickiewicz», VST. article in the book. Miscavige. A. «Poems. Poem», M., «Fiction», 1979.
7. Sonnet Of The Silver Age. Russian sonnet of the late XIX – early XX century. Comp., VST. article and comments. A. S. Fedotova. M., «Pravda», 1990.
8. Titarenko, S. D. «Crimean Sonnets» of Adam Mickiewicz in Russian translations and the development of the sonnet in the late 20-ies – 30-ies of the XIX century in proc. Mat. scientific. Conf. The Harmony Of Opposites. Aspects of the theory and history of the sonnet. Tbilisi, TSU, 1985.
9. Fedotov A. S. «Poetic cosmos of the sonnet», Literary Studies, Moscow, 1997, vol. 2.
10. Filina N. The first appeal to the sonnets of Adam Mickiewicz in Georgia // Scientific session dedicated to the 200th anniversary since the birth of Adam Mickiewicz. Tbilisi, TSU Publishing house, 1998.
9 key words: sonnet (sonnet cycle), romanticism, Tauris, family, nostalgia, pilgrim, element, confession, Faith.
9 keywords: sonet, romantism, Tavrida, homeland, nostalgia, piligrim, calamity, confession, faith.
«Crimean sonnets» of Adam Mickiewicz had a great popularity not only in the homeland of the poet, but also abroad, especially in Russia. This success was not accidental: the sonnet as a poetic form, has attracted increasing attention of talented Slavic poets. After the publication of this cycle, sanetomo interest in the genre has increased significantly. In the cycle of sonnets Mickiewicz was able to reflect not only their vision of the land of the legendary t -, but also to pour out nostalgic feelings. Incorruptible sincerity, in describing what he had seen paintings of the revelation of the poet with the reader, and, at the same time, some mystery which it veils expressive from a position of poetics images that make the «Crimean sonnets» in the Treasury of world literature.